Portable Power
by Iver P. Cooper

Primary Batteries (2012)

Alkaline-Manganese dioxide Batteries (2012)

Battery Performance (2012)

Ambalavanan, Effect of Various Grid Alloys on the Performance of Flooded Lead Acid Cells, Bull.. Electrochem. 12: 190-92 (Mar-Apr 1996)., “Coin Cell / Button Cell Battery Guide”

Brown, Power Supplies Cookbook (2001).

[BU] “How does Internal Resistance affect Performance?”

[BU-106] “BU-106: Advantages of Primary Batteries”

[BU-201] “BU-201: How does the Lead Acid Battery Work?”

[BU-203] “BU-203: Nickel-based Batteries”

Blomgren, The Development and Future of Lithium Ion Batteries, J. Electrochemical Soc’y, 164(1): A5019-25 (2017).

Call2Recycle, US Consumer Battery Sales & Available for Collection 2014 to 2020 (May 2016)

[California IWMB] Household Battery Waste Management Study (Mar 1992).

Chamoun, Rechargeable Aqueous Batteries Based on Available Resources: Investigation and Development Towards Efficient Battery Performance, (D. Phil. Dissertation, Stockholm University 2019).

Clemens, “A Solution to the Aluminum Air Battery Issue”, DesignNews (Nov. 29, 2018)

Craddock, An economic history of the post-Medieval world in 50 ingots: the British Museum collection of ingots from dated wrecks, British Museum Technical Research Bulletin (2012).

Crompton, Battery Reference Book (2000).

Delano, Classification of Manganese Dioxides, Ind. Eng. Chem., 1950, 42 (3), pp 523–527

Dell, Aqueous Electrolyte Batteries, Phios. Transac.: Mathem. Phys. & Eng’g Sci., 354 (1712),: 1515-27 (July 15, 1996).

DeMarce, 1632: Grantville Population Distribution

Du, Experimentation with electrolytes

ePanorama, Common DC Voltage Levels

Schwartz, Stanford R. Ovshinsky: The Science and Technology of an American Genius (2008).

Cowie, “All About Batteries,” EETimes
and the previous 11 parts (links at end)

Electrode Materials

“Why Batteries Fail”
“Battery Life (and Death)”
“Battery Performance Characteristics”
“Cell Construction”
“ZInc Air Batteries”

“New Battery Designs and Chemistries”
“Cell Chemistries – How Batteries Work”
“Battery Performance Characteristics”

Einerhand, Zinc Electrode Shape Change, Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven DOI:
10.6100/IR300779 (1989)

Eveready, Energizer Silver Oxide (Zn/Ag2O) Application Manual (Nov. 6, 2001)

Eveready, Eveready Carbon Zinc Application Manual (2018).

Evolving Energy Pty Ltd, Silver-Oxide Battery Technologies (2015).

Faegh, Understanding the Dynamics of Primary Zn-MnO2 Alkaline Battery Gassing with Operando Visualization and Pressure Cells, J. Electrochem. Soc’y, 165(11): A2528-A2535 (2018).

Field, “Homemade Batteries”

Fink, Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers (13th ed. 1993).

Golberg, Zn/Cu-vegetative batteries, bioelectrical characterizations, and primary cost analyses, J. Renewable & Sustainable Energy (May 2010)

Grun, Design Parameters and Advances in Silver Zinc Secondary Batteries, Electrochemical Society, Proceedings of the Symposium on Rechargeable Zinc Batteries, Vol. 95-14: 98 (1996).

Gu, Rechargeable zinc-air batteries: A promising way to green energy, J. Materials Chem. A, DOI: 10.1039/c7ta01693j (2017).

Hare, Experiments with homemade batteries
(seawater batteries)

Higashi, Avoiding short circuits from zinc metal dendrites in anode by backside-plating configuration, Nature Communications, D10.1038/ncomms11801 (Jun 6, 2016).

Hintz, Portable Power: Inventor Samuel Ruben and the Birth of Duracell, Technology & Culture, 50(1): 24-57 (Jan. 2009).

Hitachi, Zinc Ore Analysis (1991)

Hunt, “Juan’s Dilemma: A New Twist on the Old Lemon Battery,: Sci. Teacher, 77(7): 52-6 (2010).

Khan, Conference Paper, “Experimental Study of Earth Batteries” (2nd Intl Conf. Elec. Eng’g, Mar. 25-26, 2008, Lahore, Pakistan).

Klang, May 1, 2017 answer on Quora to “What are the physical differences between a lead-acid car battery and a lead-acid deep-cycle battery?”

Kolb, Is Local Action in Primary Cells a Myth? — Depends Upon Purity of Spelter Used for Battery Zincs — Amalgamation with Merucry Reduces Tendency to Disintegrate, Railway Signaling and Communications, 19: 346 (Sept. 1926).

Kumar, Biobatteries to utilize bioenergy from fruit and vegetable wastes, Current Science 71(2): 92-3 (July 1996).

Li, Recent advances in zinc-air batteries, Chem. Soc. Rev. 43: 5257 (2014).

Lombardi, The Accuracy and Stability of Quartz Watches, Horological J., 57-9 (Feb. 2008).

McMurdie, Study of the Modifications of Manganese Dioxide, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Standards, 41: (Dec. 1948)

[MI] MI Battery Engineering, “Battery Shelf Life and Storage”

Monk, Hacking Electronics (2013).

Mornhinweg, Mercury Battery Replacement

Park, Perspective of Zn-Air Batteries, June 3, 2015

Pickett, Electrochemistry of Some New Alkaline Battery Electrodes (Air force Aero-Propulsion Laboratory, Feb. 1976)

Plett, Battery Boot Camp (2018)

Skogstad, Recycling Zinc from Alkaline Batteries (Bachelor’s Thesis, Civil & Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 2017)

[OGE] Off-Grid Europe, Lead-Acid Battery

Olivetti, Life Cycle Impacts of Alkaline Batteries with a Focus on End-of-Life (Feb. 2011)

Pavlov, Lead-Acid Batteries, Science and Technology: A Handbook of Lead-Acid Battery Technology and Its Influence on the Product (2017).

Pistoia, Batteries for Portable Devices (2005).

Ritchie, Military Applications of Reserve Batteries, Phil. Trans.: Math. Phys. & Eng. Sci., 354(1712): 1643-1652 (July 15, 1996).

Rodgers, Batteries

Saskind, Proceedings of the Symposium on History of Battery Technology (1987).

[sschemical] “Density-Strength Conversion Table for Sulfuric Acid Solutions at 60° F”

Schlesinger, The Battery: How Portable Power Sparked a Technological Revolution ().


Shepherd, The Silver Oxide-Zinc Alkaline Primary Cell, Part 1 (July 1, 1949)

Sullivan, “Converting the SRT to Use Silver Oxide Cells”

Talaie, Methods and Protocols for Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials Research, Chem. Mater. 2017, 29, 90-104 (Sept. 4, 2016), DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b02726

Taylor, Mercury Battery Replacement for Antique Instruments, “Understanding Battery Shelf Life” (May 14, 2014)

Wintzer, Antimony — A Flame Fighter

Witschi Electronic Ltd., Measuring Technology and Troubleshooting for Watches (Oct. 2016).

NEWMOA, IMERC Fact Sheet: Mercury Use in Batteries

Virden, Building a Better Battery (June 9, 2011)

Vittoz, The Electronic Watch and Low-Power Circuits, IEEE SSCS News (Summer 2008).

Watts, The Corrosion of Metals by Acids, MEtal Record and Electroplater, 4(1): 4 (Jan. 1918).

Wu, Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications ().

Zamarayeva, Fabrication of a High-erformance Flexible Siver-Zinc Wire Battery, Adv. Electron. Mater. 2016: 1500296.

Zhang, Corrosion and Electrochemistry of Zinc (1996).