by Iver Cooper

This Supplement provides material which, for space reasons, wouldn’t fit in my Mineral Mastery article in Grantville Gazette 23. Don’t expect it to make much sense without reading the article!

If you have found this Supplement by an internet search, be warned: it relates to the “1632 universe”, an alternate history described in the science fiction novel 1632 by Eric Flint. History is altered by a cosmic cataclysm in 1631. So if you try using the article or this supplement to write a history paper, you may have some unpleasant surprises….



Appendix 1: Holdings in Grantville Libraries

Appendix 2: Extracts from EB11 Country Essays

Appendix 3: Selected Post-1631 Discoveries in OTL Europe

Appendix 4: My notes on minerals in Japan per HCWA and the Columbia Encyclopedia

Table 1: Readily Accessible Grantville Encyclopedia Information on Ore Deposits in Essays on Elements and Ore Minerals

Table 2: Countries with Major Deposits of Selected Metals/Minerals (without regard to GV knowledge)

Table 3: ORE (not metal) Production in 1880s (long tons) (Phillips)

Table 4: Occurrences of Selected Minerals by Region, per HCWA

Miscellaneous Notes


Specific Minerals



Freeze, Coal: A Human History (2003).


“Oil reserves”

Golonka, The Carpathians and their Foreland (

Natural Gas

Breunese, Natural gas in the Netherlands: exploration and development in historic and future perspective, in Rondeel, et al., eds., Geology of Gas and Oil Under the Neterhlands, 19-30 (1966).

List of Natural Gas Fields

World’s Largest Natural Gas Fields

Gold and Silver

Crane, Gold and Silver

Watkins, Gold and Silver in the West


Swank, History of the Manufacture of Iron in All Ages (1892).

Fairbairn, Iron: Its History, Properties & Processes of Manufacture (1865).

Scrivenor, History of the Iron Trade (1841).

Jeans, Steel: Its History, Manufacture, Properties, and Uses (1880).


Weed, The Copper Mines of the World (1907).

Office of Technology Assessment, Copper: Technology and Competitiveness (1988).


Pulsifer, Notes for a History of Lead (1888)


Ingalls, Production and Properties of Zinc (1902).


[GTK] Nickel in Finland,

Makola-Hitura Nickel Area

[evjeweb] “Fl?t Nickel Mine 1844 – 1946”,

[SMQ] School of Mines Quarterly 5: 266 (1883-4).

Garland, “On the Nickeliferous Pyrites of Berg Nickel Mine, in the Island of Senjen, Norway, Transactions, Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 10: 161 (1814).

[OLA], Ontario Legislative Assembly, Sessional Papers – Legislature of the Province of Ontario, No. 72, p. 179 (1895).

Howard-White, Nickel: A Historical Review (1963).

Foster, “The Pechenga Ore Deposits: Russia,” and “The Noril’sk-Talnakh Ore Deposits: Russia,” in New Frontiers in Research onf Magmatic NiS-PGE Mineralisation Center for Global Metallogeny, University of Western Australia, Feb. 2003, pp. 129-136

Barnes, The Composition and Mode of Formation of the Pechenga Nickel Deposits, Kola Peninsula, Northwestern Russia, The Canadian Mineralogist, 39: 447-471 (2001),


National Research Council, Manganese Reserves and Resources of the World and Their Industrial Implications (1981).

Specific Geographical Regions

map of Kola Peninsula

Nickel in Finland

De Graaf, Mineralogy of Russia,

Bird, “The Impacts of Opencast Mining on the Rivers and Coasts of New Caledonia” 1984)

Waszkis, Mining in the AMericas (1993).

Miller, The Mineral Deposits of South America (1919)

[Andalucia] “Huelva Province – Rio Tinto”

De Vos, “Metallogenic Mineral Provinces and World Class Ore Deposits in Europe”

Bakewell, “The Viceroyalty of New Spain, ca 1650” and

“The Viceroyalty of Peru, ca 1650,”

Sellerier, Data Referring to Mexican Mining (1901).

Shirvastva, “Mining of Copper in Ancient India,” Indian J. His. Sci. 34(3): 173 (1999).

“Early coalmines,”

(coal mining in France)

Show Mines of Sweden (various pages)


Kroupnik, “History of Gold in Russia,” based on Kroupnik, The Russian Gold (1994), at

Gommans, Mughal Warfare (2002).

Imperial Geological Survey of Japan, Outlines of the Geology of Japan (1902).

Peters, Geology and Nonfuel Mineral Deposits of Asia and the Pacific (USGS Open-File Report 2005-1294C).

Cerf, Alsace-Lorraine Since 1870 (1919) — the truth of the assertion was challenged in a book review

Ogilvie, The Klondike Official Guide

Report of the Survey and Exploration of Northern Ontario 1900 By Ontario Dept. of Crown Lands

Hodgins, Canoeing North Into the Unknown

Jensen, Soviet natural resources in the world economy

General Geological References

USGS, “Minerals Information”,

(can look up by commodity or by country. My table 2 was compiled using the 2008 or 2009 Mineral Commodity Summaries. The oldest information is in the Minerals Yearbook from 1932.)

[USGS1918] USGS, “Mineral resources of the United States” (1918).

Lock, Economic Mining (1895).

Von Cotta, A Treatise on Ore Deposits (1855).(revised by Phillips).

Phillips, A Treatise on Ore Deposits (1884)

(geographical organization. Has comprehensive production data from the early 1880s.)

Spurr, Political and Commercial geology and the world’s mineral resources (1920).

(organization by mineral)

Bateman, Economic Mineral Deposits (1950)(same).

Beyschlag, The Deposits of the Useful Minerals & Rocks (1918)(3 vols.)

Beck, The Nature of Ore Deposits (1905)(2 vols.)

Gregory, Military Geography and Topography (1918)(Chapter 8 is organized by mineral)

Lindgren, Mineral Deposits (1913)(evolutionary organization)

Miscellaneous References

Naylor, Economic Warfare: Sanctions, Embargo Busting, and Their Human Cost (2001).

Smil, Energy in World History (1994).

Barker, Economic Statesmanship (1920).


Franck, To the Ends of the Earth: The Great Travel and Trade Routes of Human History (1984).

Weston, Strategic Matierials

(see p. 6 for the French strategic materials list, p. 4 for West Germany)


[HCWA] Hammond Citation World Atlas (1987).

[AWH] Black, ed., The Atlas of World History (Dorling Kindersley Publ. 2005)

[RMAWH] Moore, ed., Rand-McNally Atlas of World History (1987).

[TCAWH] Winkleman, ed., Times Concise Atlas of World History(1982).


Droysens, Balkan Peninsula and Ottoman Empire Until 1699

Droysens, Russia in the 16th and 17th centuries.

“Die Wirtschaft Mittel- unde Westeuropeas im Zeitalter des Fruhapitalismus (um 1550)” in Leisering, Historischer Weltatlas (1997)

(Lead (Blei), Iron (Eisen), Gold, Copper (Kupfer), Mercury (Quecksilber), Silver (Silber), Tin (Zinn), Hard coal (Steinkohle), Salt (Salz)).

Poznaniak, Administrative division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1619

Poland-Lithuania, European Russia, 1648

ditto, 1598

Russia, 1600 and 1700

Baltic, 1617

Europe 1600

Freeman, The Baltic Lands 1617

Poole, Plate XLIX, Russia, 1613-1878

Poole, Poland, 1569-1795

Corwin, The Political History of Poland p. 235 ()


Asia 1600

Asia Medieval Commerce, from Shepherd’s

Schwartzberg, A Historical Atlas of South Asia

Poole, Moghul Empire 1605

Mughal India, 1605 and 1707

Mughal 1690

Mughal 1525, 1605, 1707

Safavid Persia in the 16th and 17th centuries

The Ottoman and Safavid Empires, ca. 1600

Ottoman and Safavid Empires (with Safavid 1629 borders)

Frederick DeWit. “Nova Persiae, Armeniae Natoliae et Arabiae.” (1680)

At the library of Congress

Safavids (17th century)

for mica — Cooper, ‘The Sound of Mica” (Grantville Gazette 9)

for borates — Cooper, “Adventures in Prospecting and Mining for Minerals (Boron),

Appendix 1: Holdings in Grantville Libraries

Encyclopedias: Based on Mannington, the school and town libraries have the

World Book (1998, 1994, 1983, HS; 2000 MPL)

Academic American (1983, HS)

Compton’s (1982, HS)

Collier’s (1980, HS)

McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (1977, HS),

Van Nostrand’s Scientific Encyclopedia (1958, HS),

Encyclopedia Americana (1998 MPL).

There are also some specialized 1-3 volume encyclopedias, e.g., on Indian Tribes, the American West, West Virginia, world history, american history, etc. . We know that the Ninth and Eleventh (1911) editions of the Encyclopedia Britannica were found by barflies in Mannington, and it is canon that there are later editions of EB, including one acquired by Christian IV of Denmark (Flint, 634: THe Baltic War, chap. 44), as well as the Columbia and Funk and Wagnalls encyclopedias in Grantville. (Flint, 1634: The Bavarian Crisis Chap. 5). I think it likely that someone has the Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia and Microsoft Encarta on disk, too. According to Rick Boatright, the junior HS has Collier’s, too.

Notes on encyclopedias (based in part on Wikipedia, so sue me)

It’s important to note that since the Thirties, the major encyclopedias revise their content every year, whether or not they declare a new edition. They add new material, and often they delete old material to make room. This means that unless you have access to the exact same year of an encyclopedia as the one in the Mannington library, you can’t be sure the content is the same. Moreover, online editions may contain somewhat different material than the print editions, since they are easier to update and since they need to be “multimedia” to compete effectively.

Encyclopedia Americana was one of the three major general encyclopedias, the “ABCs”, with 30 volumes in the print set. A CD-ROM version was published in 1995.

Encyclopedia Britannica is the “B”, of course. According to an email from Virginia DeMarce, Rick found a copy of the 9th edition (1898; 24 vols. plus index volume, vol. 1 missing) in the Round Barn at Mannington during the 2004 Minicon. As for the 11th edition (28 vols.), she said, “There are two copies in Grantville. Charles Prael assigned one to … Hayes Daniels. No data as to whether in paper or on CD. The other, which was purchased by Mayor Dreeson’s grandfather prior to WWI and had sat fairly well unnoticed on a shelf under the bay windows in the family house ever since, was donated to the new national/state library by him.The text is available online but if you need to find the original, with illustrations, it is indexed in Library of Congress under “EncyclopAEdia Britannica”, Call # is AE5 .E36. ” In late 2004, Rick told me, “going price for an entire set of 1911 is about $450.” I found a CD-ROM version with illustrations, too. In 1974, the fifteenth edition was released; this introduced a division into the Micropedia (short entries) and Macropedia (very long entries).

I personally consult the 15th edition from 1990. The first CD-ROM version came out in 1994.

Collier’s, the “C” of the “ABCs”, was expanded to 24 volumes in 1962. The last print edition was 1997. Collier content was incorporated into Encarta in 1998.

World Book Encyclopedia is 22 volumes, with the last major edition in 1988. It was first released on CD-ROM in 1990.

American Academic Encyclopedia, 21 volumes, was the basis for the 1985 CD-ROM, The New Grolier Electronic Encyclopedia. This evolved into the Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia in 1995.

Compton’s was 26 volumes, and the last pre-ROF print edition was 1995. CD-ROM versions wre released in 1992 and 1995-98.

Encarta is a digital encyclopedia based on Funk and Wagnalls’, Collier’s and New Merit Scholar.

McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology has to be seen to be believed. NMHS has the 4th edition (June 1977), which is 15 volumes. I have access to the 9th ed. (20 vols., 2002) or 10th ed. (20 vols., 2007).

Atlases: Mannington has Rand McNally’s The Picture Atlas of the World (1990), the Hammond Citation World Atlas (1988), Webster’s Color Atlas of the World (1982), Rand McNally’s Student’s World Atlas (1982), the National Geographic Picture Atlas of the World (1979), the Hammond Nature Atlas of America (1973), and the Hammond World Atlas (1951). The Rand McNally Family World Atlas (1972) has a two-page spread on world mineral resources; this scale makes it worthless for prospecting but perhaps acceptable for strategic planning. The Hammond Citation World Atlas has very good economic maps for individual countries or regions, Canadian provinces, and US states.

It is perhaps worth mentioning that if the library now has a post-RoF edition of a reference, that it replaced a pre-RoF edition. That might be the case, for example, for the MPL’s Encyclopedia Britannica World Atlas (2005).

Re mining other than coal mining….: Mannington Public Library has Wolle, The bonanza trail : ghost towns and mining camps of the West (1953); Chidsey, The California gold rush; an informal history (1968); Jackson, Gold Rush album (1949); Lewis, Sutter’s Fort: Gateway to the gold fields (1966). North Marion High School has Wissmann, Katy Kelly of Cripple Creek (1968) (fiction); L’Amour, Comstock Lode (1992)(fiction).

Re rock and mineral identification: Mannington’s North Marion High School library has Pellant, Eyewitness Handbooks — Rocks and Minerals (1992), Simon and Schuster’s Guide to Rocks and Minerals (1978), Fay, The Rockhound’s Manual (1972), Zim, Rocks and Minerals (1961), Pough, A Field Guide to Rocks and Minerals (1953), and Loomis, Field Book of Common Rocks and Minerals (1948). The Mannington Public Library has Lye, Minerals and Rocks (1980), Bauer, A Field Guide in Color to Minerals, Rocks and Precious Stones (1974), Michele, The World of Minerals (1972), and Pellent, Collecting Gems and Minerals.

If your orientation is “geographic” — you are looking for mining opportunities in a particular country or province — the most efficient search strategy is to start with the economic maps in HCWA, EB15 and WBE. And of course you will be consulting the appropriate geographic entries (country, province, and town) in whatever encyclopedias you can get your hands on.

If your goal is “functional” — you are looking for the best source of a particular metal — you would probably start with one of the more comprehensive “long entry” modern encyclopedias (EA or EB15) and look up the element and each of its ores. And do the same in EB11 so you don’t overlook a perfectly good deposit which was depleted in the course of the 20c

Appendix 2: Excerpts from EB11 Relating to Mineral Wealth

These excerpts are from the country essays and very occasionally from provincial essays. More information can be garnered from the other geographic essays. See Table 1 for information extracted from the essays on the elements and ore minerals.


“Silver is produced from “mines of Freiburg (Saxony), the Harz Mountains, upper Silesia, Merseburg, Aix-la-Chapelle, Wiesbaden and Arnsberg. Gold is found in the sand of the rivers Isar, Inn and Rhine, and also, to a limited extent, on the Harz…. Lead is produced in considerable quantities in upper Silesia, the Harz Mountains, in the Prussian province of Nassau, in the Saxon Erzgebirge and in the Sauerland…. Copper is found principally in the Mansfeld district of the Prussian province of Saxony and near Arnsberg in the Sauerland…. [Zinc] is mostly found in upper Silesia, around Beuthen, and in the districts of Wiesbaden and Aix-la-Chapelle…. nickel and antimony are found in the upper Harz; cobalt in the hilly districts of Hesse and the Saxon Erzgebirge; arsenic in the Riesengebirge; quicksilver in the Sauerland and in the spurs of the Saarbrucken coal hills…. The iron-fields of Germany fall into three main groups: those of the lower Rhine and Westphalia, of which Dortmund and Dsseldorf are the centres; those of Lorraine and the Saar; and those of upper Silesia.”


“The iron deposits occur in more or less fine-grained gneiss or granulite (Gellivara, Grangesberg, Norberg, Striberg), or separated from the granulite by masses of augitic and amphibolous minerals (gronskarn), as in Persberg and Nordmark. Sometimes they are surrounded by halleflinta and limestone, as at Dannemora, Langban, Pajsberg, and then carry manganiferous minerals. Argentiferous galena occurs at Sala in limestone, surrounded by granulite, and at Guldsmedshytta (province of Orebro) in dark halleflinta. The cobalt ore consists of cobalt-glance (Tunaberg in the province of Soderrnanland) and of linneite (at Gladhammar, near Vestervik). Copper pyrites occur at Falun in mica-schists, surrounded by halleflinta. Zinc-blende occurs in large masses at Ammeberg, near the northern end of Lake Vetter….

“The deposits of iron ore are confined almost wholly to the extreme north of Norrland, and to a midland zone extending from the south of the Gulf of Bothnia to a point north of Lake Vener, which includes the Dannemora ore fields in the eastern part. In Norrland the deposits at Gellivara have long been worked…. Copper has been mined at Falun since the 14th century; it is also produced at Atvidaberg in Ostergotland….. A little gold and silver are extracted at Falun, and the silver mines at Sala in Vestmanlands Lan have been worked at least since the 16th century…. Lead is produced at Sala and Kafveltorp, and zinc ore at Ammeberg. Coal is found in small beds in Skane, east and north of Helsingborg, at Billesholm, Bjuf and Hoganas; but the amount raised, although increasing, is only some 300,000 tons annually.”


Here are the oldest and most celebrated copper mines in Europe. Their produce has gradually decreased since the 17th century, and is now unimportant, but sulphate of copper, iron pyrites, and some gold, silver, sulphur and sulphuric acid, and red ochre are also produced. The mines belong to the Kopparberg Mining Company (Stora Kopparbergs Bergslags Aktiebolag, formerly Kopparbergslagen). This is the oldest industrial corporation in Sweden, and perhaps the oldest still existing in the world; it is known to have been established before 1347….


“Coal occurs only on Ando, an island in Vesteraalen. Silver is mined at Kongsberg; copper at Roros, Sulitelma, and Aamdal in Telemarken; iron at Klodeberg near Arendal and in the Dunderlandsdal (developed early in the 10th century). “


There are copper-mines at the mountain of Sulitelma, and the iron deposits in Norrland are among the most extensive in the world.


With regard to Finland, the information is also scant: “Some gold is obtained in Lapland on the Ivalajoki, but the output, which amounted in 1871 to 56,692 grammes, had fallen in 1904 to 1951 grammes. There is also a small output of silver, copper and iron. The last is obtained partly from mines, but chiefly from the lakes.” The last is presumably a reference to bog iron.


Some of the richest lignite fields in Europe are found in the north-east corner of Bohemia round Briix, Dux, Falkenau, Ossegg and Teplitz. Coal is mined round Kladno, Buschtehrad, Pilsen, Schlan, Rakonitz, Niirschan and Radnitz, the lastnamed place containing the oldest coal mines of Bohemia (17th century). Iron ores are found at Krusnahora and Nucic…. Silver is extracted at Pfibram and Joachimsthal, but the silver mines near Kuttenberg, famous in the middle ages, are now abandoned. Lead is extracted at Pfibram, tin at Graupen in the Erzgebirge…. Antimony is extracted at Milleschau near Tabor; uranium and radium near Joachimsthal; graphite near Krumau and Budweis; porcelain-earth near Carlsbad….. “


“Coals are extracted at Neudorf, Lesitz, Ratiskowitz and Ceic; lignite at Rossitz, Oslavan and Mahrisch-Ostrau. Iron-ore is found at Zoptau, Blansko, Adamsthal, Witkowitz, Rossitz and Stefanau. Other minerals found here are graphite… famous silver mines were worked at Iglau during the middle ages.”

EB11/United Kingdom

[gives quantities of coal, iron ore, tin ore, iron, tin, lead, zinc, copper, gold and silver produced in 1900 and 1909.] Also mentions production of manganese and uranium. Coal: “of the coal raised in England the county of Durham contributes about 22%, Yorkshire 17%, Lancashire 16%, Stafford and Derbyshire each about 9%, and Northumberland 7%; while of the coal raised in Wales 85% is contributed by the county of Glamorgan; and that the coal production of England and Wales together constitutes, in quantity and value, 85% of the whole production of the United Kingdom. ” [table lists most productive counties for iron ore]. Lead: “The most productive counties are Flint, Durham and Derby; the ore obtained in the Isle of Man is increased in value by the silver it contains. ” Tin: “obtained almost exclusively in Cornwall. ” Zinc: “obtained chiefly from mines in Cumberland, Wales and the Isle of Man. ” Copper: “The total tonnage of ore included 5757 tons from England (chiefly from Cornwall) and 1146 from Ireland (Wicklow, &c.). Copper precipitate is taken from water pumped up from old copper mines on Parys Mountain in Anglesey. ” Gold: “During the period1890-1905gold mines were worked continuously in Merionethshire. Notices of the discovery of gold elsewhere (as in the Forest of Dean, Argyllshire and Ireland) have appeared from time to time. “


Coal.The principal mines of France are coal and iron mines. The production of coal and lignite averaging 33,465,000 metric tons in the years 1901-1905 represents about 73% of the total consumption of the country…. The Flemish coal-basin, employing over 100,000 hands, produces 60% of the coal mined in France. French lignite comes for the most part from the department of BOuches-du-Rhne (near Fuveau). [production table]. The department of Meurthe-et-Moselle (basins of Nancy and Longwy-Briey) furnished 84% of the total output during the quinquennial period 1901-1905, may be reckoned as one of the principal iron-producing regions of the world. The other chief producers were Pyrnes-Orientales, Calvados, Haute-Marne (Vassy) and Saneet-Loire (Mazenay and Change).

Other Ores The mining of zinc the chief deposits of which are at Malines (Gard), Les Bormettes ~Var) and Planioles (Lot), and of lead, produced especially at Chaliac (Ardche), ranks next in importance to that of iron. Iron-pyrites come almost entirely from Department. Chief Centre Seine -. -Nord Lille, Anzin, Denain, Douai, I Loire Rive-de-Gier, Firminy, StEtie Meurthe-et-Moselle -. Pont–Mousson, Frouard, Lor Ardennes Charleville, Nouzon Sain-Bel (Rhne), manganese chiefly from Ariege and Sane-et. Loire, antimony from the departments of Mayenne, Haute-Loire and Cantal. Copper and nickel are mined only in small quantities.

[production table] Salt, &c.Rock-salt is worked chiefly in the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle,which produces more than half the average annual product of salt…. Sulphur is obtained near Apt (Vaucluse) and in a few other localities of south-eastern France; bituminous schist near Autun (Sane-et-Loire) and Buxires (Allier). The most extensive peat-workings are in the valleys of the Somme; asphalt comes from Seyssel (Am) and Puyde-Dme.


“in the production of copper ore, lead ore and mercury Spain heads the list. In the production of salt and silver it is excelled only by Austria-Hungary, and, as regards silver, not always even by it. Iron ore is chiefly obtained in Biscay and Murcia, the former yielding by far the greater quantity, but the latter yielding the better quality. All except a small fraction of the copper ore is obtained from the province of Huelva, in which lie the well-known mines of Tharsis and Rio Tinto (q.v). The lead ore is obtained chiefly in Murcia and Jaen. The famous mines of Linres belong to the latter province. Argentiferous lead is chiefly produced in Almerla, which also produces most of the silver ore of other kinds except argentiferous copper ore, which is entirely obtained from Ciudad Real. The still more celebrated mercury mines of Almaden, the richest in the world till the discovery of the Californian mines of New Almaden, belong to Ciudad Real, and this province, together with that of Oviedo, furnishes the whole of the Spanish production of this mineral. Spanish salt is partly marine, partly derived from brine-springs and partly from rock-salt, of which last there is an entire mountain at Cardona in Barcelona. Coal is chiefly obtained in Oviedo, Palencia and Cordova.” It also alludes to the coal of Oviedo, manganese of Ciudad Real, and phosphorite of Chceres.


The mining industry in Sardinia is confined in the main to the south-western portion of the island. [table gives production of zinc, lead, silver, manganese, antimony, lignite, anthracite and copper in 1905]. In 1904-1905, 14,188 workmen were employed in the mines of the province of Cagliari…. The chief mines are those of Gennamare and Ingurtosu and others of the group owned by the Pertusola Company, Monteponi and Montevecchio…. The most important minerals are lead and zinc, obtained in lodes in the forms of galena and calamine respectively. In most cases, owing to the mountainous character of the country, horizontal galleries are possible…. Silver has also been found in the district of Sarrabus, iron at S. Leone to the west of Cagliari, and antimony and other metals near Lanusei, but in smaller quantities than in the Iglesias district, so that comparatively little mining has as yet been done there. Lignite is also mined at Bacu Abis, near Gonnesa, and Anthracite in small quantities near Seui. The salt-pans at Cagliari and of Carloforte are of considerable importance….


The most important Sicilian mineral is undoubtedly sulphur, which is mined principally in the provinces of Caltanissetta and Girgenti, and in minor quantities in those of Palermo and Catania…. Another Sicilian mineral industry is that of common salt and rocksalt. The former is distilled from sea-water near Trapani, and the latter obtained in smaller quantities from mines…. Besides salt, the asphalt mining industry may be mentioned. Its centre is the province of Syracuse…. Pumice stone is also exported from Lipari (II,oio tons in 1904).

EB11/Russian Poland

There are “malachite ores near Kielce, and copper has been worked there since the 15th century…. The brown iron ores of Kielce contain no less than 40% of iron. The zinc ores of the Olkusz district, more than 50 ft. thick, contain 8 to 14%, sometimes 25%, of zinc. The tin ores of Olkusz are still more important, and were extensively wrought as early as the 16th century. Brown iron ores, appearing in the neighborhood of Bendzin as lenticular masses 55 ft. thick, and containing 25 to 33% of iron, accompany the zinc ores…. Sulphur is wrought in the district of Pinczow; the deposits, which contain 25% of sulphur, reach a thickness of 7 to 70 ft. Coal occurs in south-west Poland over an area of 200 sq. m. in the districts of Bendzin and Olkusz. Brown coal ,,, appears in the Olkusz district in beds 3 to 7 ft. thick…. “


The two principal mining centres of European Russia are the Urals, Ekaterinoslav, Kharkov and the Don Cossacks territory. The Ural industry is the older, and is still conducted on primitive methods, wood being largely used for fuel, and the ore and metals being transported by water down the Kama and other rivers. The minerals chiefly produced in the Urals are iron, coal, gold, platinum, copper, salt and precious stones. The production of pig-iron nearly doubled between 1890 and 1900, increasing from 446,800 tons in the former year to 801,600 in the latter; but since 1900 the output has declined, the total for 1904 (inclusive of Siberia) being 644,000 tons. The amount of iron and steel produced in the Urals is not quite 20% of the total in all European Russia and Poland. The output of coal in the Urals is, altogether, less than 3% of the total for all the empire and 4% of the output of European Russia (exclusive of Poland) alone. The annual increase is but small, 261,300 tons having been the total in 1891, and 517,000 tons the total in 1904. Gold has been mined in the Urals since 1820; but since 1892 the output has fallen off very considerably. Whereas in the latter year the yield amounted to 395,500 oz., in 1900 it was only 291,250 oz. No less than 96% of the world’s supply of platinum comes from the Urals; but the total output only ranges between 10,000 and 16,000 lb annually. The copper industry has greatly declined since the 18th century; whereas then it kept 20 smelting works employed, now one-tenth of that number can hardly be kept going. The output for the year is less than 4000 tons. At one time all Russia was supplied with salt from the Urals, but at the present time the output is extremely small, less than 350 tons annually. Salt has been mined there since the 16th century.

The mining region of S. Russia is much more important. It is of comparatively recent foundation (1860), and is carried on largely with French and Belgian capital, with modern appliances and with modern scientific knowledge. Out of an average of some 2,700,000 tons of pig-iron produced annually in the whole of the Russian empire, 61.5% is produced in the basin of the Donets, and out of an average of 2,160,500 tons of worked iron and steel 48.7% are prepared in the same region. The principal consumer of this iron and steel is the government, for its railways, locomotives, wagons, arsenals, artillery, &c. The output of coal in the Russian empire has increased from a total of less than 300,000 tons in 1860 to 3,280,000 in 1880, 15,878,200 in 1900, and 18,620,000 tons in 1904. Of these totals something like 70% is produced in the S. coal-field.


Copper ore is extracted above the Murgul river (some 30 m. south of Batum), at Akhtala south of Tiflis, and at Kedabek in Elisavetpol; manganese to a considerably greater extent (over 400,000 tons annually) at Chiaturi in the Kvirila valley in Kutais. Steam coal of good quality is reported to exist about 30 m. inland from the open roadstead of Ochemchiri in Kutais, but it is not mined. About 50,000 tons of coal of very poor quality are, however, extracted annually, and the same quantity of salt in the Armenian highlands and in Kuban. Small quantities of quicksilver, sulphur and iron are obtained. But all these are insignificant in comparison with the mineral oil industry of Baku, which in normal times yields annually between ten and eleven million tons of crude oil (naphtha). A good deal of this is transported by gravitation from Baku to Batum on the Black Sea by means of a pipe laid overland. The refined oil is exported as kerosene or petroleum, the heavier refuse (mazut) is used as fuel. Naphtha is also obtained, though in much smaller quantities, in Terek and Kuban, in Tiflis and Daghestan.

EB11/Ural Mountains

The Middle Urals, between 61° and 55° 30′ N. and about 80 m. in breadth, are the best known, as they contain the richest iron, copper and gold mines (Bogoslovsk, Goroblagodatsk and Ekaterinburg Urals).

The Permian deposits cover a wide zone all along the western slope of the Urals from north to south, and are most important on account of their copper ores, salt beds and salt springs.

The mineral wealth of the Urals was known to the Greeks in the 9th century, and afterwards to the Novgorodians, who penetrated there in the i ith century for trade with the Ugrians. When the colonies of Novgorod (Vyatka, Perm) fell under the rule of Moscow, the Russian tsars soon grasped the importance of the Ural mines, and Ivan III. sent out German engineers to explore that region. in 1558 the whole of the present government of Perm was granted by the rulers of Moscow to the brothers Stroganov, who began to establish salt-works and mines for iron and copper. Peter the Great gave a new impulse to the mining industry by founding several iron-works, and from 1745, when gold was first discovered, the Russian colonization of the Urals took a new departure. The colonization was of a double character, being partly free – chiefly by Nonconformists in search of religious freedom – and partly compulsory, – the government sending peasant settlers who became serfs at the iron and copper works. Until 1861 all work at the mines was done by serfs belonging either to private persons (the Stroganovs, Demidovs and others) or to the crown. Not only are the Urals very rich in minerals, but the vast areas covered with forests afford an almost inexhaustible supply of cheap fuel for smelting purposes. Thus for a long time the Urals were the chief mining region in Russia. But when coal began to be used for smelting purposes, south Russia generally, and Ekaterinoslav in particular, became the chief iron-producing region.

Gold is met with in the Urals both in veins and in placers; the output increased from about 30,000 oz. in 1883 to three times that amount at the end of the century. The Urals have also rich placers of platinum, often mixed with gold, iridium, osmium and other rare metals, and supply annually some 13,000 ib, i.e. 95% of all the platinum obtained in the world. Silver, mercury, nickel, zinc and cobalt ores are found. Rich mines of copper are found at Turinsk, Gumishev and other places, yielding as much as 5% of pure copper; nickel is obtained at Revdinsk, and the extractionof iron chromates has developed. Coal exists in many places on the western slope of the Urals, mainly on the Yaiva river, in the basin of the Kama, and on the Usva (basin of the Chusovaya), and about 500,000 tons are raised annually. Several beds of coal have been found on the eastern slope; excellent anthracite exists at Irbit and good coal at Kamyshlov. Sapphires, emeralds, beryls, chrysoberyls, tourmalines, aquamarines, topaz, amethysts, rockcrystals, garnets and many kinds of jade, malachite and marble are cut and polished at several stone-cutting works, especially at Ekaterinburg; and diamond-mining may prove successful. Good asbestos is extracted, and pyrites is worked for the manufacture of sulphuric acid Many varieties of mineral waters occur in the Urals, the best being those at Serginsk, Klyuchevsk and Elovsk.


There are turquoise mines near Nishapur… several copper mines in Khorasan, Samnan, Azerbaijan and Kerman; some of lead, two considerably argentiferous, in Khorasan, Tudarvar (near Samnan), Anguran, Afshar (both west of Zenjan), and Kerman; two of iron at Mesula in Gilan and Nur in Mazandaran; two of orpiment in Afshar and near Urmia; one of cobalt at Kamsar (near Kashan); one of alum in Tarom (near Kazvin); and a number of coal in the Lar district, north-east of Teheran, and at Hiv and Abyek, north-west of Teheran…. There are also some very rich coal seams in eastern Persia, far away on the fringe of the desert, and under existing conditions quite valueless. The richest deposits of nickel, cobalt and antimony ores are also situated in localities where there is little water and the nearest useful fuel some hundred miles away. Auriferous alluvial strata have been discovered in various localities, but everywhere the scarcity of water has been a bar to their being exploited with profit. A rich naphtha-bearing zone stretches from the Luristan hills near Kermnshgh down to the Persian Gulf…. borings in the Bakhtiari hills, west of Shushter, would give excellent results, but the difficult hilly country and the total absence of roads, as well as the antipathy of the inhabitants of the district, would make the transport and establishment of the necessary plant a most difficult matter.”


Putting aside salt, which has been already treated, the chief mining resources of India at the present day are the coal mines, the gold mines, the petroleum oil-fields, the ruby mines, manganese deposits, mica mines in Bengal, and the tin ores and jade of Burma. Other minerals which exist but have not yet been developed in paying quantities are copper ore, alum, gypsum and plumbago.

Coal has been known to exist in India since 1774. The first mine at Raniganj dates from 1820, and has been regularly worked up to the present time. Coal of varying quality exists under a very extensive area in India, being found in almost every province and native state with the exception of Bombay and Mysore. In respect, however, of both the number and size of its mines Bengal comes easily first, with seven-eighths of the total output, the largest mines being those of Raniganj, Jherria, and Giridih, while the Singareni mine in Hyderabad comes next. Many of the Bengal mines, however, are very small. There are some important mines in Assam and the Central Provinces….Coal and iron are found in conjunction in the Central Provinces….

The production of gold in India is practically confined to the Kolar gold fields in Mysore. An uncertain but unimportant amount is annually procured by sand-washing in various tracts of northern India and Burma; and there have been many attempts, including the great boom of 1880, to work mines in the Wynaad district of the Madras Presidency. There are also mines in the Hyderabad state from which a small amount of gold is produced. But the output of gold in Mysore represents 99 A. of the annual Indian yield. Modern mining at Kolar dates from 1881, but there are extensive old workings showing that much gold had been extracted under native rule…. Up to the end of 1903 the total output of the Kolar mines reached the value of £19,000,000.

In purity of ore, and in antiquity of working, the iron deposits of India probably rank first in the world. They are to be found in every part of the country, from the northern mountains of Assam and Kumaun to the extreme south of the Madras Presidency. Wherever there are hills, iron is found and worked to a greater or less extent. The indigenous methods of smelting the ore, which are everywhere the same, and have been handed down unchanged through countless generations, yield a metal of the finest quality in a form well suited to native wants. But they require an extravagant supply of charcoal; and even with the cheapness of native labour the product cannot compete in price with imported iron from England.

The great oilfields of the Indian empire are in Burma, which supplies 98% of the total output. Of the remainder nearly all comes from Assam.

Manganese ore is found in very large quantities on a tract on the Madras coast about midway between Calcutta and Madras. Most of the ore goes to Great Britain. There are also valuable deposits of manganese in the Central Provinces and, it is believed, in Burma. The export of manganese, which had been only about ten years in existence in 1905-1906, amounted then to 316,694 tons, with a value of £250,000. Mica has long been obtained in Bengal, chiefly in the Hazaribagh district, and there is a rubycoloured variety which is held in great estimation. In Madras also a mica industry has recently grown up. Tin is found in the Tavoy and Mergui districts of Lower Burma, and has for many years been worked in an unprogressive manner chiefly by Chinese labour. In 1900 tin of good quality was found in the Southern Shan States. Copper ore is found in many tracts throughout India, plumbago in Madras, and corundum in southern India.

Despite its legendary wealth, which is really due to the accumulations of ages, India cannot be said to be naturally rich in precious stones. Under the Mahommedan rule diamonds were a distinct source of state revenue; and Akbar is said to have received a royalty of £80,000 a year from the mines of Panna. But at the present day the search for them, if carried on anywhere in British territory, is an insignificant occupation. The name of Golconda has passed into literature; but that city, once the Mussulman capital of the Deccan, was rather the home of diamond-cutters than the source of supply. It is believed that the far-famed diamonds of Golconda actually came from the sandstone formation which extends across the south-east borders of the nizam’s dominions into the Madras districts of Ganjam and Godavari. A few poor stones are still found in that region. Sambalpur, on the upper channel of the Mahanadi river in the Central Provinces, is another spot once famous for diamonds. So late as 1818 a stone is said to have been found there weighing 84 grains and valued at £500. The river-valleys of Chota Nagpur are also known to have yielded a tribute of diamonds to their Mahommedan conquerors. At the present day the only place where the search for diamonds is pursued as a regular industry is the native state of Panna in Bundelkhand The stones are found by digging down through several strata of gravelly soil and washing the earth. Even there, however, the pursuit is understood to be unremunerative, and has failed to attract European capital. At the present day the only important industries are the rubies and jade of Burma. The former are worked by the Ruby Mines Company or by licensed native miners under the)(Iv. 13a company. The value of the rubies found has increased rapidly, and the company, which was for some time worked unprofitably under the lease granted in 1896, has now, with the aid of favourable treatment from the government, become more prosperous. Pearls are found off the southern coast of Madras and also in the Mergui archipelago.


Coal, iron, copper and tin are the principal minerals found in China; there are also extensive deposits of coal and other minerals C 1 in Manchuria. In China proper the largest coal measures oa. are found in Shan-si, Hu-nan, Kwei-chow and Sze-chuen.

There are also important coalfields in Chih-li, Shan-tung, Shen-si, Ho-nan,Yun-nan, Hu-peh and Kwang-tungand almost all of the seven other provinces have also coal measures of more or less value…. Numerous small mines have been worked for a long period by the natives in the province of Hu-nan. There are two principal local fields in this province, one lying in the basin of the Lei river and yielding anthracite, and the other in the basin of the Siang river yielding bituminous coal. Both rivers drain into the Yangtsze, and there is thus an easy outlet by water to Hankow. The quality of the coal, however, is inferior, as the stratification has been much disturbed, and the coal-seams have been in consequence crushed and broken. The largest coalfield in China lies in the province of Shan-si. Coal and iron have here been worked by the natives from time immemorial, but owing to the difficulty of transport they have attained only a limited local circulation. The whole of southern Shan-si, extending over 30,000 sq. m., is one vast coalfield, and contains, according to the estimate of Baron von Richthofen, enough coal to last the world at the present rate of consumption for several thousand years…..The coal at Kaiping is a soft bituminous coal with a large proportion of dust. The output is about 1,500,000 tons per annum….

Iron ore of various qualities is found almost as widely diffused as coal. The districts where it is most worked at present lie within the coalfield of Shan-si, viz, at Tsi-chow-fu and Pingting-chow. The ore is a mixture of clay iron ore and spathic ore, together with limonite and hematite. It is found abundantly in irregular deposits in the Coal Measures, and is easily smelted by the natives in crucibles laid in open furnaces. This region supplies nearly the whole of north Chinawith the iron required for agricultural and domestic use….The province of Sze-chuen also yields an abundance of iron ores of various kinds. They are worked by the natives in numerous places, but always on a small scale and for local consumption only. The ores occur in the Coal Measures, predominant among them being a clay iron ore. Hu-nan, Fu-kien, Cheh-kiang and Shan-tung all furnish iron ores. Iron (found in conjunction with coal) is worked in Manchuria.

Copper is found chiefly in the provinces of Kwei-chow and Yun-nan, where a rich belt of copper-bearing ores runs east and west across both provinces, and including south Sze-chuen. The Copper, chief centres of production are at the cities of Tung ~ ch~uen-fu, Chow-tung and Ning-yuen. The mines are worked as a government monopoly, private mining being nominally prohibited. The output is considerable, but no statistics are published by government. Rich veins of copper ore are also worked near Kiu-kiang. Tin is mined in Yun-nan, the headquarters of the industry being the city of Meng-tsze, which since 1909 has been connected with Hanoi by railway. This is an important industry, the value of tin exported in 1908 being 600,000. Tin is also mined in Hai-nan and lead in Yun-nan. Antimony ore is exported from Hu-nan; petroleum is found in the upper Yangtsze region. Quicksilver is obtained in Kwei-chow. Salt is obtained from brine wells in Shan-si and Sze-chuen, and by evaporation from sea water.

The Chinese government has opened small gold mines at Har-nan, in which island silver is also found. A little gold-washing is done in the sandy beds of certain rivers, for instance, the Han river and the upper Yangtsze, above Su-chow (Suifu), PrecioUs which here goes by the name of the Goldsand river. me S~ The amount so extracted is extremely small and hardly pays the labor of washing, but the existence of gold grains points to a matrix higher up. The whole of south-western China has the reputation of being highly metalliferous. Gold is obtained in some quantities on the upper waters of the Amur river, on the frontier between China and Siberia. The washings are carried on by Chinese. Gold has also been found in quartz veins at Ping-tu, in Shan-tung, but hardly in paying quantities. There are silver mines in Yun-nan.


From the mine of Ichinokawa in Shikoku come the wonderful crystals of antimonite, which form such conspicuous objects in the mineralogical cabinets of Europe. (

Gold occurs in quartz veins among schists, paleozoic or volcanic rocks and in placers. The quantity obtained is not large, but it shows tolerably steady development, and may possibly be much increased by more generous use of capital and God. larger recourse to modern methods.

The value of the silver mined is approximately equal to that of the gold. It is found chiefly in volcanic rocks (especially tuff), in the form of sulphide, and it is usually associated with gold, copper, lead or zinc. ver.

Much more important in Japans economics than either of the precious metals is copper. Veins often showing a thickness of from 70 to 80 ft., though of poor quality (2 to 8%), are found bedded in crystalline schists or paleozoic sedimentary opper. rocks, but the richest (10 to 30%) occur in tuff and other volcanic rocks.

There have not yet been found any evidences that Japan is rich in iron ores. Her largest known deposit (magnetite) occurs at Karnaishi in Iwate prefecture, but the quantity of pigiron produced from the ore mined there does not exceed 37,000 tons annually, and Japan is obliged to import from the neighboring continent the greater part of the iron needed by hei for ship-building and armaments.

Considerable deposits of coal exist, both anthracite and bituminous The former, found chiefly at Amakusa, is not greatly inferior to thc Cardiff mineral; and the latterobtained in abundance in Kishi and Yezois a brown coal of good medium Coa quality. Altogether there are 29 coal-fields now actually worker in Japan….

Petroleum also has of late sprung into prominence on the list o her mineral products. The oil-bearing stratawhich occur mainl~ in tertiary rocksextend from Yezo to Formosa, but Petrole m I the principal are in Echigo, which yields the greater Dart of the petroleum now obtained, the Yezo and Formosa well being still little exploited. The quantity of petroleum obtained in Japan in 1897 was 9 million gallons, whereas the quantity obtained in 1906 was 55 millions.

The earliest mention of goldmining in Japan takes us back to the year A.D. 696, and by the 16th century the country had acquired the reputation of being rich in gold. During the days of her medieval intercourse with the outer world, her stores of the precious metals were largely reduced, for between the years 1602 and 1766, Holland, Spain, Portugal and China took from her 313,800 lb (troy) of gold and 11,230,000 lb of silver.

Finding in the 18th century that her foreign intercourse not only had largely denuded her of gold and silver, but also threatened to denude her of copper, Japan set a limit (3415 tons) to the yearly export of the latter metal. After the resumption of administrative power by the emperor in 1867, attention was quickly directed to the question of mineral resources; several Western experts were employed to conduct surveys and introduce Occidental mining methods, and ten of the most important mines were worked under the direct auspices of the state in order to serve as object lessons. Subsequently these mines were all transferred to private hands, and the government now retains possession of only a few iron and coal mines whose products are needed for dockyard and arsenal purposes. The following table shows the recent progress and present condition of mining industry in Japan: [table omitted]


The minerals of Siam include gold, silver, rubies, sapphires, tin, copper, iron, zinc and coal. Tin-mining is a flourishing industry near Puket on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula, and since 1905 much prospecting and some mining has been done on the east coast. The export of tin in 1908 exceeded 5000 tons, valued at over f600,000. Rubies and sapphires are mined in the Chantabun district in the south-east.


Australia is one of the great gold producers of the world, and its yield in 1905 was about £16,000,000 sterling, or one-fourth of the gold output of the world; and the total value of its mineral production was approximately £25,000,000. Gold is found throughout Australia,….

From the date of its first discovery, up to the close of 1905, gold to the value of £460,000,000 sterling has been obtained in Australia. Victoria, in a period of fifty-four years, contributed about £273,000,000 to this total, and is still a large producer, its annual yield being about 800,000 oz., 29,000 men being engaged in the search for the precious metal. Queensland’s annual output is between 750,000 and 800,000 oz.; the number of men engaged in goldmining is io,000. In New South Wales the greatest production was in 1852, soon after the first discovery of the precious metal, when the output was valued at £2,660,946; the production in 1905 was about 270,000 oz., valued at £1,150,000. For many years Western Australia was considered to be destitute of mineral deposits of any value, but it is now known that a rich belt of mineral country extends from north to south. The first important discovery was made in 1882, when gold was found in the Kimberley district; but it was not until a few years later that this rich and extensive area was developed. In 1887 gold was found in Yilgarn, about 200 m. east of Perth. This was the first of the many rich discoveries in the same district which have made Western Australia the chief gold-producer of the Australian group. In 1907 there were eighteen goldfields in the state, and it was estimated that over 30,000 miners were actively engaged in the search for gold. In 1905 the production amounted to 1,983,000 oz., valued at £8,300,000. Tasmania is a gold producer to the extent of about 70,000 or 80,000 oz. a year, valued at £300,000; South Australia produces about 30,000 oz.

Gold is obtained chiefly from quartz reefs, but there are still some important alluvial deposits being worked. The greatest development of quartz reefing is found in Victoria, some of the mines being of great depth. There are eight mines in the Bendigo district over 3000 ft. deep, and fourteen over 2500 ft. deep. In the Victoria mine a depth of 3750 ft. has been reached, and in Lazarus mine 3424 ft. In the Ballarat district a depth of 2520 ft. has been reached in the South Star mine. In Queensland there is one mine 3156 ft. deep, and several others exceed 2000 ft. in depth. A considerable number of men are engaged in the various states on alluvial fields, in hydraulic sluicing, and dredging is now adopted for the winning of gold in river deposits. So far this form of winning is chiefly carried on in New South Wales, where there are about fifty gold-dredging plants in successful operation. Over 70,000 men are employed in the gold-mining industry, more than two-thirds of them being engaged in quartz mining.

Silver has been discovered in all the states, either alone or in the form of sulphides, antimonial and arsenical ores, chloride, bromide,. iodide and chloro-bromide of silver, and argentiferous Silver lead ores, the largest deposits of the metal being found in the last-mentioned form. The leading silver mines are in New South Wales, the returns from the other states being comparatively insignificant. The fields of New South Wales have proved to be of immense value, the yield of silver and lead during 1905 being £2,500,000, and the total output to the end of the year named over £40,000,000. The Broken Hill field, which was discovered in 1883, extends over 2500 sq. m. of country, and has developed into one of the principal mining centres of the world. It is situated beyond the river Darling, and close to the boundary between New South Wales and South Australia. The lodes occur in Silurian metamorphic micaceous schists, intruded by granite, porphyry and diorite, and traversed by numerous quartz reefs, some of which are gold-bearing. The Broken Hill lode is the largest yet discovered. It varies in width from 10 ft. to 200 ft., and may be traced for several miles. Although indications of silver abound in all the other states, no fields of great importance have yet been discovered. Up to the end of 1904 Australia had produced silver to the value of £45,000,000. At Broken Hill mines about 11,000 miners are employed.

Copper is known to exist in all the states, and has been mined extensively in South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland and. Tasmania. The low quotations which ruled for a number Copper of years had a depressing effect upon the industry, and many mines once profitably worked were temporarily closed, but in 1906 there was a general revival. The discovery of copper had a marked effect on the fortunes of South Australia at a time when the young colony was surrounded by difficulties. The first important mine, the Kapunda, was opened up in 1842. It is estimated that at one time 2000 tons were produced annually, but the mine was closed ‘ in 1879. In 1845 the celebrated Burra Burra mine was discovered. This mine proved to be very rich, and paid £800,000 in dividends to the original owners. For a number of years, however, the mine has been suffered to remain untouched, as the deposits originally worked were found to be depleted. For many years the average output was from 10,000 to 13,000 tons of ore, yielding from 22 to 23% of copper. For the period of thirty years during which the mine was worked the production of ore amounted to 234,648 tons, equal to 51,622 tons of copper, valued at £4,749,924. The Wallaroo and Moonta mines, discovered in 1860 and 1861, proved to be even more valuable than the Burra Burra, the Moonta mines employing at one time upwards of 1600 hands. The dividends paid by these mines amounted to about £1,750,000 sterling. The satisfactory price obtained during recent years has enabled renewed attention to be paid to copper mining in South Australia, and the production of the metal in 1905 was valued at £470,324. The principal deposits of copper in New South Wales are found in the central part of the state between the Macquarie, Darling and Bogan rivers. Deposits have also been found in the New England and southern districts, as well as at Broken Hill, showing that the mineral is widely distributed throughout the state. The more important mines are those of Cobar, where the Great Cobar mine produces annually nearly 4000 tons of refined copper. In northern Queensland copper is found throughout the Cloncurry district, in the upper basin of the Star river, and the Herberton district. The returns from the copper fields in the state are at present a little over half a million sterling per annum, and would be still greater if it were not for the lack of suitable fuel for smelting purposes, which renders the economical treatment of the ore difficult; the development of the mines is also retarded by the want of easy and cheaper communication with the coast. In Western Australia copper deposits have been worked for some years. Very rich lodes of the metal have been found in the Northampton, Murchison and Champion Bay districts, and also in the country to the south of these districts on the Irwin river. Tasmania is now the largest copper-producing state of the Commonwealth; in 1905 the output was over £672,010 and in earlier years even larger. The chief mines belong to the Mount Lyell Mining & Railway Co., and are situated on the west side of the island with an outlet by rail to Strahan on the west coast. The total value of copper produced in Australia up to the end of 1905 was £42,500,000 sterling, £24,500,000 having been obtained in South Australia, £7,500,000 in New South Wales, £6,400,000 in Tasmania and over £3,500,000 in Queensland.

Tin was known to exist in Australia from the first years of colonization. The wealth of Queensland and the Northern Territory Tia. in this mineral, according to the reports of Dr Jack, late Government geologist of the former state, and the late Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, appears to be very great. The most important tin-mines in Queensland are in the Herberton district, south-west of Cairns; at Cooktown, on the Annan and Bloomfield rivers; and at Stanthorpe, on the border of New South Wales. Herberton and Stanthorpe have produced more than three-fourths of the total production of the state. Towards the close of the 19th century the production greatly decreased in consequence of the low price of the metal, but in 1899 a stimulus was given to the industry, [[[Minerals]] and since then the production has increased very considerably, the output for 1905 being valued at £989,627. In New South Wales lode tin occurs principally in the granite and stream tin under the basaltic country in the extreme north of the state, at Tenterfield, Emmaville, Tingha, and in other districts of New England. The metal has also been discovered in the Barrier ranges, and many other places. The value of the output in 1905 was £226,110. The yield of tin in Victoria is very small, and until lately no fields of importance have been discovered; but towards the latter end of 1890 extensive deposits were reported to exist in the Gippsland district – at Omeo and Tarwin. In South Australia tin-mining is unimportant. In Western Australia the production from the tin-fields at Greenbushes and elsewhere was valued at £87,000. Tasmania during the last few years has attained the foremost position in the production of tin, the annual output now being about £363,000. The total value of tin produced in Australia is nearly a million sterling per annum, and the total production to the end of 1905 was £22,500,000, of which Tasmania produced about 40%, New South Wales one-third, Queensland a little more than a fourth.

Iron is distributed throughout Australia, but for want of capital for developing the fields this industry has not progressed. In New South Wales there are, together with coal and limestone Iron. in unlimited supply, important deposits of rich iron ores suitable for smelting purposes; and for the manufacture of steel of certain descriptions abundance of manganese, chrome and tungsten ores are available. The most extensive fields are in the Mittagong, Wallerawang and Rylstone districts, which are roughly estimated to contain in the aggregate 12,944,000 tons of ore, containing 5,853,000 tons of metallic iron. Extensive deposits, which are being developed successfully, occur in Tasmania, it being estimated that there are, within easy shipping facilities, 17,000,000 tons of ore. Magnetite, or magnetic iron, the richest of all iron ores, is found in abundance near Wallerawang in New South Wales. The proximity of coal-beds now being worked should accelerate the development of the iron deposits, which, on an average, contain 41% of metal. Magnetite occurs in great abundance in Western Australia, together with haematite, which would be of enormous value if cheap labour were available. Goethite, limonite and haematite are found in New South Wales, at the junction of the Hawkesbury sandstone formation and the Wianamatta shale, near Nattai, and are enhanced in their value by their proximity to coal-beds. Near Lithgow extensive deposits of limonite, or clay-band ore, are interbedded with coal. Some samples of ore, coal and limestone, obtained in the Mittagong district, with pig-iron and castings manufactured therefrom, were exhibited at the Mining Exhibition in London and obtained a first award.

Antimony is widely diffused throughout Australia, and is sometimes found associated with gold. In New South Wales the principal centre of this industry is Hillgrove, near Armidale, where Other the Eleanora Mine, one of the richest in the state, is minerals. situated. The ore is also worked for gold. In Victoria the production of antimony gave employment in 1890 to 238 miners, but owing to the low price of the metal, production has almost ceased. In Queensland the fields were all showing development in 1891, when the output exhibited a very large increase compared with that of former years; but, as in the case of Victoria, the production of the metal seems to have ceased. Good lodes of stibnite (sulphide of antimony) have been found near Roebourne in Western Australia, but no attempt has yet been made to work them.

Bismuth is known to exist in all the Australian states, but up to the present time it has been mined for only in three states, viz. New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Tasmania. It is usually found in association with tin and other minerals. The principal mine in New South Wales is situated at Kingsgate, in the New England district, where the mineral is generally associated with molybdenum and gold.

Manganese probably exists in all the states, deposits having been found in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia, the richest specimens being found in New South Wales. Little, however, has been done to utilize the deposits, the demands of the colonial markets being extremely limited. The ore generally occurs in the form of oxides, manganite and pyrolusite, and contains a high percentage of sesquioxide of manganese.

Platinum and the allied compound metal iridosmine have been found in New South Wales, but so far in inconsiderable quantities. Iridosmine occurs commonly with gold or tin in alluvial drifts.

The rare element tellurium has been discovered in New South Wales at Bingara and other parts of the northern districts, as well as at Tarana, on the western line, though at present in such minute quantities as would not repay the cost of working. At many of the mines at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, large quantities of ores of telluride of gold have been found in the lode formations.

Lead is found in all the Australian states, but is worked only when associated with silver. In Western Australia the lead occurs in the form of sulphides and carbonates of great richness, but the quantity of silver mixed with it is very small. The lodes are most frequently of great size, containing huge masses of galena, and so little gangue that the ore can very easily be dressed to 83 or 84%. The association of this metal with silver in the Broken Hill mines of New South Wales adds very greatly to the value of the product.

Mercury is found in New South Wales and Queensland. In New South Wales, in the form of cinnabar, it has been discovered on the Cudgegong river, near Rylstone, and it also occurs at Bingara, Solferino, Yulgilbar and Cooma. In the last-named place the assays of ore yielded 22% of mercury.

Titanium, in the minerals known as octahedrite and brookite, is found in alluvial deposits in New South Wales, in conjunction with diamonds.

Wolfram (tungstate of iron and manganese) occurs in some of the states, notably in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland. Scheelite, another mineral of tungsten, is also found in Queensland. Molybdenum, in the form of molybdenite (sulphide of molybdenum), is found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, associated in the parent state with tin and bismuth in quartz reefs.

Zinc ores, in the several varieties of carbonates, silicates, oxide, sulphide and sulphate of zinc, have been found in several of the Australian states, but have attracted little attention except in New South Wales, where special efforts are being made successfully to produce a high-grade zinc concentrate from the sulphide ores. Several companies are devoting all their energies to zinc extraction, and the output is now equal to about 5% of the world’s production.

Nickel, so abundant in the island of New Caledonia, has up to the present been found in none of the Australian states except Queensland and Tasmania. Few attempts, however, have been made to prospect systematically for this valuable mineral.

Cobalt occurs in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia, and efforts have been made in the former state to treat the ore, the metal having a high commercial value; but the market is small, and no attempt has been made up to 1907 to produce it on any large scale. The manganese ores of the Bathurst district of New South Wales often contain a small percentage of cobalt – sufficient, indeed, to warrant further attempts to work them. In New South Wales chromium is found in the northern portion of the state, in the Clarence and Tamworth districts and also near Gundagai. It is usually associated with serpentine. In the Gundagai district the industry was rapidly becoming a valuable one, but the low price of chrome has greatly restricted the output. Chromium has been discovered in Tasmania also.

Arsenic, in its well-known and beautiful forms, orpiment and realgar, is found in New South Wales and Victoria. It usually occurs in association with other minerals in veins.

The Australian states have been bountifully supplied with mineral fuel. Five distinct varieties of black coal, of well-characterized. types, may be distinguished, and these, with the two extremes of brown coal or lignite and anthracite, form a perfectly continuous series. Brown coal, or lignite, occurs principally in Victoria. Attempts have frequently been made to use the mineral for ordinary fuel purposes, but its inferior quality has prevented its general use. Black coal forms one of the principal resources of New South Wales; and in the other states the deposits of this valuable mineral are being rapidly developed. Coal of a very fair description was discovered in the basin of the Irwin river, in Western Australia, as far back as the year 1846. It has been ascertained from recent explorations that the area of carboniferous formation in that state extends from the Irwin northwards to the Gascoyne river, about 300 m., and probably all the way to the Kimberley district. The most important discovery of coal in the state, so far, is that made in the bed of the Collie river, near Bunbury, to the south of Perth. The coal has been treated and found to be of good quality, and there are grounds for supposing that there are 250,000,000 tons in the field. Dr Jack, late government geologist of Queensland, considers the extent of the coal-fields of that state to be practically unlimited, and is of opinion that the carboniferous formations extend to a considerable distance under the Great Western Plains. It is roughly estimated that the Coal Measures at present practically explored extend over an area of about 24,000 sq. m. Coal-mining is an established industry in Queensland, and is progressing satisfactorily. The mines, however, are situated too far from the coast to permit of serious competition with Newcastle in an export trade, and the output is practically restricted to supplying local requirements. The coal-fields of New South Wales are situated in three distinct regions – the northern, southern and western districts. The first of these comprises chiefly the mines of the Hunter river districts; the second includes the Illawarra district, and, generally, the coastal regions to the south of Sydney, together with Berrima, on the tableland; and the third consists of the mountainous regions on the Great Western railway and extends as far as Dubbo. The total area of the Carboniferous strata of New South Wales is estimated at 23,950 sq. m. The seams vary in thickness. One of the richest has been found at Greta in the Hunter river district; it contains an average thickness of 41 ft. of clean coal, and the quantity underlying each acre of ground has been computed to be 63,700 tons. The coal mines of New South Wales give employment to 14,000 persons, and the annual production is over 6,600,000 tons. Black coal has been discovered in Victoria, and about 250,000 tons are now being raised. The principal collieries in the state are the Outtrim Howitt, the Coal Creek Proprietary and the Jumbunna. In South Australia, at Leigh’s Creek, north of Port Augusta, coalbeds have been discovered. The quantity of coal extracted annually in Australia had in 1906 reached 7,497,000 tons.

Kerosene shale (torbanite) is found in several parts of New South Wales. It is a species of cannel coal, somewhat similar to the Boghead mineral of Scotland, but yielding a much larger percentage of volatile hydro-carbon than the Scottish mineral. The richest quality yields about 100 to 130 gallons of crude oil per ton, or 17,000 to 18,000 cub. ft. of gas, with an illuminating power of 35 to 40 sperm candles, when gas only is extracted from the shale….

Asbestos has been found in New South Wales in the Gundagai Bathurst and Broken Hill districts – in the last-mentioned district in considerable quantities. Several specimens of very fair quality have also been met with in Western Australia.

Many descriptions of gems and gem stones have been discovered in various parts of the Australian states, but systematic search has been made principally for the diamond and the noble opal. Diamonds are found in all the states; but only in New South Wales have any attempts been made to work the diamond drifts. The best of the New South Wales diamonds are harder and much whiter than the South African diamonds, and are classified as on a par with the best Brazilian gems, but no large specimens have yet been found. The finest opal known is obtained in the Upper Cretaceous formation at White Cliffs, near Wilcannia, New South Wales, and at these mines about 700 men find constant employment. Other precious stones, including the sapphire, emerald, oriental emerald, ruby, opal, amethyst, garnet, chrysolite, topaz, cairngorm, onyx, zircon, &c., have been found in the gold and tin bearing drifts and river gravels in numerous localities throughout the states. The sapphire is found in all the states, principally in the neighbourhood of Beechworth, Victoria. The oriental topaz has been found in New South Wales. Oriental amethysts also have been found in that state, and the ruby has been found in Queensland, as well as in New South Wales. Turquoises have been found near Wangaratta, in Victoria, and mining operations are being carried on in that state. Chrysoberyls have been found in New South Wales; spinel rubies in New South Wales and Victoria; and white topaz in all the states. Chalcedony, carnelian, onyx and cat’s eyes are found in New South Wales; and it is probable that they are also to be met with in the other states, particularly in Queensland. Zircon, tourmaline, garnet and other precious stones of little commercial value are found throughout Australia.

EB11/New Caledonia

The main mineral deposits are the nickel ores, occurring as veins of garnierite, associated with peridotite dikes, in the ancient rocks of the eastern slope of the island.

Gold is found in the valley of the Diahot, as well as lead and copper at Balade. Iron is found everywhere. The yearly output of nickel and chrome is considerable, and these minerals, with cobalt, constitute the characteristic wealth of the island. Coal has been worked near Noumea,


The mineral districts occur from Cape Breton to the islands in the Pacific and the Yukon district. Nova Scotia, British Columbia and the Yukon are still the most productive, but the northern parts of Ontario are proving rich in the precious metals. Coal, chiefly bituminous, occurs in large quantities in Nova Scotia, British Columbia and in various parts of the north-west (lignite), though most of the anthracite is imported from the United States, as is the greater part of the bituminous coal used in Ontario. Under the stimulus of federal bounties, the production of pig iron and of steel, chiefly from imported ore, is rapidly increasing. Bounties on certain minerals and metals are also given by some of the provinces. The goldfields of the Yukon, though still valuable, show a lessening production. Sudbury, in Ontario, is the centre of the nickel production of the world, the mines being chiefly in American hands, and the product exported to the United States. Of the less important minerals, Canada is the world’s chief producer of asbestos and corundum. Copper, lead, silver and all the important metals are mined in the Rocky Mountain district. From Quebec westwards, vast regions are still partly, or completely, unexplored.

Appendix 3: Selected Post-1631 Discoveries in OTL Europe


–Kiruna (iron), 1647

–Aitik, Malmberge, Gallivare (copper, gold), 1880s [1750s?]

–Bastnäsfältet, Riddarhyttan, Vastmanland (iron), 1692

–Fröå gruva, near Åre (copper), 1744

–Zinkgruvan, Knalla, Askersund (zinc, lead, silver), 1857

–Konungastollen, near Nora (iron), 1761


–La Gardette, Isere (gold), 1700 (Phillips 231)

–Pollaouen and Huelgoet, Finistere (lead), 1729 (234)

–Chalanches, French Alps (silver), 1767 (249)(by goatherd searching for strayed kid)


–Hiendelaencina, Guadelahara(silver), 1843 (367)

–Cantabrian coast (zinc), 1852 (370)


–Todtmoos-Mättle, Black Forest (pyrrhotite; later nickel), 1798

–Marienglashöhle, Friedrichsroda, Thuringia (gypsum), 1775

–Morassina, Schmiedefeld, Thuringia (alum), 1683

–Mühlwand, Reichenbach (alum), 1691

–Rabensteiner Stollen, Ilfeld, Harz (coal), 1737

–Markus-Röhling-Stolln, Frohnau, Erzegebirge (silver, cobalt), 1733

-Grube Roter Bär, Sankt Andreasberg, Harz (iron), ~1800

Appendix 4: My notes on minerals in Japan per HCWA and the Columbia Encyclopedia:


Au, on mainland east of Amakusa Island, look near Kobayashi or Minamata, both N of Kagoshima (Hammond)

Cu, on east side of mainland, same latitude as Amukusa Island, look near Saito and Hyusa, N of Miyazaki (Hammond)

Zn, N of Cu deposit, look near Nobeoka. (Hammond)

Kagoshima: Kagoshima prefecture (1990 pop. 1,797,766), 3,515 sq mi (9,104 sq km), is largely mountainous, with gold, silver, iron, and copper mines. (Columbia)

Tsukushi, the largest coalfield (EB11).


Cu, S of Niihama and N of Tosa (near Kochi), probably a little closer to Tosa. (Hammond).

Cu, “Shikoku: A large copper mine is located at Besshi. ” (Columbia)


Ag, N of Kobe and Osaka, probably near Fukushiyama, Ayabe and points east. (Hammond)

Pb, midway between Toyama and Nagoya, probably SW of Takayama (Hammond)

Komatsu: It is a flourishing market town noted for its copper mining (Columbia) (town is on W coast, SW of Kanazawa)

Takaoka: Takaoka also produces paper, copper, and chemicals. (COlumbia)(town is on W coast, N of Komatsu)

Zn, NE of lead deposit, probably between Takayama and Matsumoto (Hammond)

Au, Sado (island off the coast): “Aikawa, the administrative center of the island, is the site of gold and silver mines which have been worked since 1601. ” (Columbia)

Niigata: Niigata prefecture (1990 pop. 2,474,602), 4,856 sq mi (12,577 sq km), yields rice, petroleum, gold, silver, machinery, raw silk, and farm products. (Columbia)(this prefecture includes Sado island, the petroleum is shown on the Hammond map).

Cu, below latitude of Toyama, near E coast, near Mito to Hitachi, NNE of Tokyo (Hammond)

Cu, Hitachi: It is also the site of one of Japan’s largest copper mines (Columbia).

Ibaraki: The prefecture yields tobacco, cereals, coal, copper, petrochemicals, and electric machinery. (COlumbia)(this was formerly known as Hitachi province, name changed in 1871).

Zn, N of latitude of Niigata, probably near Yonezawa to Kamihoyama (Hammond)

Fe, near Kamaishi (Hammond)

“There have not yet been found any evidences that Japan is rich in iron ores. Her largest known deposit (magnetite) occurs at Kamaishi in Iwate prefecture, but the quantity of pigiron produced from the ore mined there does not exceed 37,000 tons annually, and Japan is obliged to import from the neighboring continent the greater part of the iron needed by her for ship-building and armaments.” (1911EB)

Cu, near Kuji to Ichinoche (Hammond)

Zn, near Ichinoche to Hanawa (Hammond)

Akita: Akita prefecture (1990 pop. 1,227,491), 4,503 sq mi (11,663 sq km), contains Japan’s largest oil field and copper mine, in addition to deposits of sulfur, lead, and manganese. (Columbia)(the Oil is shown on the Hammond map)


Mn, Kikonai and points West (Hammond)

Mn, Iwanai and points SE (Hammond)

Fe, S of Sapporo on coast, W from Tomakomai (Hammond)

anthracite coal, AMakus (EB11).

In 1911, there were 29 coal fields worked in Japan. (EB11)

petroleum, Echigo, Yezo. (EB11)


Description of Tables

Table 1 shows the information which is available from just a superficial review of Encyclopedia Americana (EA) and EB11.

Table 2 shows how perceptions of where the largest concentrations of mineral riches are located can change over just the 90 years from 1919 to 2009. This is the result of the combination of the depletion of the earlier-discovered deposits, prospecting in previously little-explored parts of the world, and improvements in both prospecting and extraction technology. I must emphasize that you cannot assume that the characters in the 1632 universe are aware of the information shown in Table 3. But in the long-term, many deposits will be discovered by prospecting even if they aren’t mentioned in the up-time texts.

Table 3 provides 1880s production data for over a dozen countries, so you can get some sense of the relative importance of their deposits. This of course reflects the knowledge and development of the time, but I thought it a better guide to what might be achieved by the 1640s than twentieth century data.

Table 4 is a summary of the data available from HCWA.

Table 1: Readily Accessible Grantville Encyclopedia Information on Ore Deposits
element (discovery)natural sourcedistribution (Encyclopedia Americana)distribution (1911 Encyclopedia Britannica — essay on element or mineral only)
Alkali Metals 
Lithiummineral springs; brine pools  
 spodumene (lithium aluminum inosilicate)Austria, Scotland, Sweden, CO, NC, SDisle of Utd in Sddermanland, Sweden; Goshen, Sterling and Chesterfield MA; Branchville CT; Minas Gerais, Brazil
 petalite (lithium aluminum tectosilicate) island of Uto in the Stockholm archipelago; Elba, Italy
Sodiumcommon salt (chloride),widespread 
 natron (carbonate)“desert areas” 
Potassiumpotash (carbonate),  
 sylvite (chloride)salt deposits of Germany, Poland; NM, wTX.Stassfurt, Germany; Kalusz, Austrian Galicia.
Alkaline Metals 
Berylliumbertrandite (hydrated silicate) 
 beryl (aluminum beryllium silicate)pegmatite dep. Brazil, Argentina, Mozambique, Madagascar, US (NC), Germany, IndiaMinas Gerais, Brazil; Mursinka, Ural Mtns., Russia; Altai Mtns., Russia; Nerchinsk, Siberia; Elba (esp. San Piero), Italy; Mourne Mtns., County Down, and Donegal highlands, Ireland; Grampians, Scotland; St. Michael’s Mount, Cornwall, England; Alexander County (esp. Hiddenite) NC; Haddam and Monroe, CT; Stoneham and Albany, ME: Royalston, MA; Mt. Antero, CO; San Diego county, CA; Grafton and Acworth, NH; Goshen MA; Rubislaw quarry, Aberdeenshire, Scotland.
 magnesite(carbonate)Austria, NE China, CA, NV, WABaudissero, near Ivrea, Piedmont, Italy; isl. Euboea, Greece
 dolomite(calcium magnesium carbonate)widespread 
Calciumcalcite (carbonate) in limestonewidespread 
Transition Metals 
Titaniumrutile (dioxide)Australia (W, NSW), India, Russia (Ilmen Mtns), Sierra Leone, S Africa, Sri Lanka, VA, FL, AKRisor, Norway
 ilmenite (titanium iron oxide)Finland, Norway (S), Brazil, Quebec, VA, NC, NY. Beach and dune dep. in SE US.Ilmen Mtns., southern Urals, Russia; Kragerb and Arendal, Norway; Le Bourg d’Oisans, Dauphine, France; Manaccan, near Helston, Cornwall; Iser Mtns., Bohemia, Washington, CT; Uddevalla, Sweden
Vanadiumcarnotite (triple oxide of potassium, uranium and vanadium)US, South Africa, Namibia, Finland, Norway, Chile; byproduct of uranium mining
 roscoelite (a mica)associated with gold in CA, CO, western Australia
 vanadinite (lead chloro vanadate)Wanlockhead, Dumfriesshire; Eisen-Kappel, near Klagenfurt, Carinthia; associated with lead veins
Chromiumchromite (iron chromate)Kazakhstan, S Africa, Zimbabwe, Turkey, Philippines, CubaBare Hills nr. Baltimore MD; Lancaster County, PA; Dun Mtn. nr. Nelson, NZ; Unst, Shetlands
Molybdenummolybenite (sulfide)CO, Canada, Sov Union, Chile, PRCAldfeld, Pontiac county, Quebec; Kingsgate, Gough county, New South Wales; Caldbeck Fells, Cumberland; Slangsvold nr. Raade, Norway
Tungstenwolframite (iron manganese tungstate)CO, ID, NCTrumbull and Monroe CT; Mecklenburg county NC; Mammoth mining district, NV. Associated with tin (cassiterite)
 scheelite (calcium tungstate)NV, CA, Australia, Czech, England, GermanyCaldbeck Fells, Cumberland; Zinnwald and Elbogen, Bohemia; Guttannen, Switzerland; Riesengebirge, Silesia; Dragoon mountains, AZ; Trumbull, CT; Kimpu-san, Japan
 placer tungstenPortugal, Myanmar 
Manganesepyrolusite (oxide)Sov Union, S Africa, China, Gabon, Brazil, AustraliaIlmenau, Thuringia; Vorderehrensdorf nr. Prossnitz, Moravia; Platten, Bohemia
 Psilomelane (oxide)the Restormel iron mine, Lostwithiel, Cornwall; Brendon Hill, Somerset; Hoy, Orkneys; Sayn near Coblenz; and Crimora, Augusta county, Virginia
Ironhematite (oxide),Lake Superior, E-TN, N-AL, MO, Venezuela, Brazil, CanadaElba, Italy; Bilbao, Spain; west Cumberland (Whitehaven district); north Lancashire (Ulverston district); Lake Superior region (e.g., Marquette district, MI), USA;
 magnetite (oxide)widespread 
Cobaltcobaltite (cobalt arsenic sulfide)Sweden, DR Congo, CanadaTunaberg, Sodermanland, and Hakansboda, Vestmanland, Sweden; Skutterud, near Drammen, Norway; Khetri, Rajputana, India; Sigen, Westphalia, Germany; Botallack mine, Cornwall, England.
Rhodiumbyproduct of platinum, gold, silver, palladium and nickel mining  
NickelsulfidesSudbury, Ontario, CanadaCanada
 laterites (oxides, silicates)New Caledonia, Cuba, ORNew Caledonia
Palladiumassociated with gold or platinum  
Platinumnative platinum, cooperite (sulfide), braggiteS Africa (Transvaal), Russ Fed (Norilsk, Petsamo), Canada (Sudbury, Ontario), ColumbiaRussia (95%), especially districts of Nizhne Tagilsk and Goroblagodatsk; SE Borneo (Tanah-Laut), Australia (near Fifield (near Condobolin), New South Wales), Canada (Sudbury, Ontario), Oregon (Douglas county) and California (Butte county, Trinity county, Del Norte county), etc.
Coppernative copper; various sulfides (eg bornite), oxides (eg cuprite), carbonates (eg malachite, azurite)Colorado plateau, upper MI peninsula, Chile (Chuquicamata), DR Congo (upper Katanga), Zambia (Copper belt)Lake Superior region, Cornwall, etc.
Silvernative silver, argentite (sulfide), chlorargyrite (chloride); associated with lead, copper or gold oreMexico, USSR, Peru, Australia, Canada, NV (Comstock Lode)Nevada (Comstock lode), Colorado (Leadville), Nevada (Eurkeka), Peru (Potosi), Australia (Broken Hills), Bolivia, Chile, Germany, Spain, Austria, Canada, Japan.
Goldnative gold (often microscopic grains in rock)S Africa (Witwatersrand, Gauteng/Transvaal), Ontario (Kirkland Lake, Porcupine, Hemlo gold fields), AK (Cape Nome), BC (Yukon R, Klondike), NW Territories (Fort Smith/Yellowknife), GA, CO (Cripple Creek), CA (Sierra Nevada western foothills), SD (Lead; Black Hills), Australia (Kalgoorlie, Bendigo/Victoria), Fiji, and others.South Africa (Witwatersrand, Transvaal, within 12 miles of Johannesburg), Zululand, Gold Coast of Africa, Colorado (Cripple Creek), India (Colar goldfields, Mysore), Yukon (Klondike), Saxony, Austria, Spain, Mexico, Brazil, California, etc.
Zincsphalerite (“zincblende”) (sulfide) (chief ore)widespread, incl. Japan, USSR, Canada, Germany, Spain, Australia,France, Italy, S Korea, Belgium, Netherlands, AL, TN, NY, ID, MT, AZ, TN, NYHarz and Silesia, Germany; Cumberland, Derbyshire, Cornwall, North Wales, England
 smithsonite (carbonate) 
 hemimorphite (silicate),Belgium, Austria, Sardinia, Romania, Algeria, England, Mexico, CO, MO, MT, NJ, NM, PAAltenburg, near Aix-la-Chapelle, France
 frankliniteFranklin and Ogdenberg NJFranklin Furnace, NJ
 Calamine (mixture of smithsonite and hemimorphite) Mendip hills; Deryshire; Alston Moor, Cumberland; Santander province, Spain; Silesia
Cadmiumgreenockite Greenock and Bishopton, Scotland; and, as powder over zinc minerals, at Przibam, Bohemia; Laurion, Greece; Joplin, MO; PA
 impurity in zinc mineral (zincblende)  
Mercurycinnabar (sulfide)Spain (Almaden), Slovenia (Idrija), Peru (Huancavelica), China (Kweichow, Hunan), CA (New Idria, New Almaden)Almaden, Spain; New Almaden, CA; Idria, Austria; Landsberg, near Ober-Moschel, Palatinate, Germany; Ripa, Tuscany, Avala Mtn., Serbia; Huancavelica, Peru; Kewichow province, China
Poor Metals 
AluminumbauxiteIreland (Irish Hill, County Atrim), France, Hungary, Yugoslavia, India, Jamaica, Guyana, Brazil, AK (Saline, Pulaski counties)Les Baux, near Arles, France; County Antrim, Ireland; Westerwald, Germany
Tincassiterite (oxide)Indonesia, Malaysia, Bolivia, England, Nigeria, DR CongoCornwall, England; Brittany, France; Galicia, Spain; Saxony and Bohemia, Germany; Durango, Mexico; nr. Campiglia Marittima, Tuscany; York region, Alaska
Leadgalena (sulfide) (Chief ore)Australia, Germany, Czechoslovakia, England, MO (Joplin), ID (Wallace), UT (Bingham, Tintic, Park City), CO (Leadville)Derbyshire; Alston, Cumberland; Laxey, Isle of Man; Neudorf, Harz; Rossie, NY; Joplin, MO
 anglesite (sulfate), Parys copper mine, Anglesey; Monteponi, Sardinia
 cerussite (carbonate)widespread, esp. Germany, Sardinia, SIberia, Australia, AZ, CO.Friedrichssegen mine, near Ems, Nassau and Johanngeorgenstadt, Saxony, Germany; Mies, Bohemia; Phenixville, PA; Broken Hill, New South Wales
TC “Table 2: Countries with Major Deposits of Selected Metals/Minerals (without regard to GV knowledge)”
Metal/MineralBased on Highest Production 1913-1919 (Spurr)World-Class Deposits USGS 2009 descending order Reserves 000 tonnes
World-Class Deposits (European italicized)“Second-String” European Deposits
IronUSA (Lake Superior), Germany, Great Britain, FranceRussia, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Spain, ItalyRussia (14M), Australia (10M), Ukraine (9M), Brazil (9M), China (7M), India (4M), Kazakhstan (3M), Sweden (2M), Canada, Iran
CoalUSA, China, CanadaBritain, Germany, France, Austria, Russia, Spain, BelgiumWikipedia: USA, Russia, China, India, Australia, South Africa, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Poland, Brazil, Germany, Columbia, Canada, Czech, Indonesia, Turkey, Greece, Hungary, Pakistan
PetroleumUSA, Russia, Mexico, Dutch East Indies, India, Persia, Galicia (total 98%)Romania, AlsaceWikipedia: Saudi Arabia, Canada, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE, Venezuela, Russia, Libya, Nigeria, Kazakhstan, USA, China, Qatar, Algeria, Brazil, Mexico
Manganesesouthern Caucasus; India (many districts); Brazil (Minas Geraes)Bukovina (Dorna Vatra), Spain (Huelva), France (Romaneche), Belgium (Chevron)Ukraine (140K), South Africa (95K), Australia, India, Gabon, China
ChromiumRhodesia (Selukwe); New Caledonia, USA (California, Oregon), Canada (Quebec), India (Baluchistan, Madras, Mysore), western Turkey, Russia (Urals), GreeceSerbiaSouth Africa (77K), India (21K), Kazahkstan (6K)
NickelOntario (Sudbury)(80%), New Caledonia, Cuba, Seboekoe (near Borneo) Australia (26K), New Caledonia (7100), Russia (6600), Cuba (5600), Canada (4900), Brazil (4500), South Africa (3700), Indonesia (3200), Zimbabwe (2200), Columbia (1400), China (1100)
TungstenChina-Burma-Siam-Malaysia, Australia, Argentina-Bolivia-Peru, Rockies, Japan-KoreaSpain, Portugal, England, GermanyChina (1800), Canada (260), Russia (250), USA (140)
VanadiumPeru (Minasragra), Colorado (San Miguel County) China (5000), Russia (5000), South Africa (3000), USA (45)
AntimonyChina (50%), France (25%)(Mayenne), MexicoAustria, Hungary, Bohemia, SardiniaChina, Thailand, Russia, Bolivia
MolybdenumAustralia (Queensland), Norway, Colorado (Climax) China (3K), US (3K), Chile (1K)
CopperUSA, Japan, ChileIberia, Norway, RussiaChile (160K), Peru (60K), Mexico (38K), Indonesia (36K), USA (35K), Poland (30K), China (30K), Australia (24K), Russia (20K), Zambia (19K)
LeadAustralia (Broken Hill), Spain, Germany (Silesia, Prussia, Westphalia, Saxony, Hanover, Nassau), Missouri, Idaho, MexicoItaly, Austria (Tyrol, Carinthia)Australia (24K), China (11K), USA (8K), Kazakstan (5K), Peru (4K)
ZincAustralia (Broken Hill), Silesia, Mississippi Valley, Italy, Algeria, Japan, Spain Australia (42K), China (33K), Peru (18K), USA (14K), Kazakhstan (14K), Mexico (7K), Canada (5K)
TinMalaysia, Bolivia, China, Siam, Cornwall, Australia, Nigeria and South Africa China (2K), Indonesia, Peru, Brazil, Malaysia, Bolivia, Russia
MercurySpain (Almaden), Austria (Idria), Italy (Monte Amiata) Kyrgyzstan Base: Spain, Italy, Kyrgyzstan, USA
Aluminum (Bauxite)France, Arkansas, Georgia, Guianas, Ireland, Italy, IndiaAustria, Croatia, Dalmatia, Russia, GermanyGuinea (7400K), Australia (5800K), Vietnam (2100K), Jamaica (2000K), Brazil (1900K), India(770K), Guyana (700K), China (700K)
Cobalt  Congo (Kinshasa)(3400),Australia (1500), Cuba (1000), Zambia, Russia (250), New Caledonia
Titanium  China (200K), Australia (152K), India (92K), South Africa, Brazil, Norway (37K)
PlatinumRussia, Columbia South Africa (63Mkg), Russia (6Mkg), USA (1Mkg)
GoldSouth Africa, USA, Australia, Russia, Rhodesia, India, Mexico South Africa, Russia, Australia, Indonesia,
SilverRocky Mountains-Andes Region, Ontario (Cobalt), India, Australia, Japan Poland, Mexico, Peru, China, USA, Canada
GraphiteCeylon, Madagascar, Bavaria China (74K), India (5K), Mexico (3K), Czech (1K) Base: China (140K), Czech (14K), India (11K),
MicaIndia, Quebec, Brazil, North CarolinaRussiaSheet: India, Russia
AsbestosQuebec, Russia (Urals), South AfricaRussia, Italy, Cyprus(no order): Canada, China, Kazakhstan, Russia
TC “Table 3: ORE (not metal) Production in 1880s “(long tons) (Phillips)
OreUK 1882France 1880Belgium 1881Germany 1881Austria 1882Hungary 1881Italy 1880Greece 1880s
Iron18031957 bog 5872 2248827573771902510465479290974 
Tin14045  1642602 16 
Copper528108649 5236964154788932299 
silver  267871184162671802 
gold   35411709 
Zinc32539121392355865953025300 760899000
cobalt38  19114137  
nickel  6  
manganese15489652 13642841828326505 
tungsten58  4466   
arsenical pyrites        
iron pyrites254031322882965125057  4663 
sulfur    9005   
antimony 1214 77 767402 
mercury    469682114 
specialAs- pyrites 12564  vitriol 21018 bismuth 67 uranium 3 mixed Au, Ag, Pb, Cu ore 96519argentiferous lead 10,000chromium 2000
Table 4,continued
OreSpain 1882Norway 1879SwedenRussian Empire 1880Japan 1875Algeria 1880USA 1882 tons 
Iron47262938060748427 bog 887210031471315 4623323 
Tin0.23   7   
Copper17208531046940638 3045957445823 
Lead341818 1101011121884066132890 
gold360  420.4 49 
Zinc57353 347184298  33765 
nickel 45484319   140 
manganese5668 538   3500 
iron pyrites(with Cu) 50,318 1517     
sulfur   87    
antimony     56760 
mercury     2002017 
specialargenti-ferous lead 22425 argenti-ferous copper 50zinc & lead 9 chrome iron 8081 platinum 3  chrome iron 2500 
Table 4: Occurrences of Selected Minerals by Region, per HCWA
 C LgONGAuAgCuFePbZnSnNa,KTiVCrMnCoNiHgMoGr pUMgFAlWSbPtAsbPy, SPNDiamMica
UK, Ireland 14**^^   ******           *         
Scandinavia 20 ^^******   ****  * * **          
Germany 24**** ***** **         *           
Low Countr 25** *   *   *                     
France 30****   **  *         *  ***  *    
Iberia 31*^^ ****** **      **  *   **  *   
Italy 36***   *** *      **      ** **   
Aus, Czech, Slov, Hung 42*** ***** *   *    *** ****      
Balkan 43*** ***** *  ** **  ** * * *    
Poland 46*** ***** *     *           *   
W Russia 50***** ***** ****** * **** ** ******
E Russia 51 Beryl************  ****** * **** *****
Mideast 60***** **   *  **       Br      *  
Turkey, Syr 61**   **** *  **   *   * * * ***  
Iran, Iraq 67****  **** *  **             *   
India, Pak, Afg 71 beryl***** ***** ** **    **  *   *  ***
SEAsia 74**^********* * **        ****      
China 78 Jade*** * *******   * *** ******* * *  
Korea-Japan 79***********     *   ****  *   *   
Philippines 83 asphalt** *****     *** **  *           
Malaysia-Indonesia 84**^* **  **    * *      *        
 C LgONGAuAgCuFePbZnSnNa,KTiVCrMnCoNiHgMoGr pUMgFAlWSbPtAsbPy, SPNDiamMica
Australia 90 opal Zr****************  * **   ** *** *****
New Zealand 101 Jade***                 *           
West Africa 109**** ********* *** *  *  * *   *** 
NE Afr 112 ***  *   *  **           ** *  
Cent Afr 116 beryl ruby**  ********   ***   *  **    ****
S Afr 117 beryl Li*  ********* **** *  *** ****** ***
Venezuela 125*****  *   *   *        *      * 
Columbia 127 emer,****  *         *   *     * * * 
Peru-Ecuador 130*********** * * *  **     **   *  
Guianas 130   *          *        **      * 
Brazil 134 Be** Quar Li** * ***** * **** *  *** ***  * * *
Bolivia 137 * ********              ****  *   
Chile 140********   *   *  ***   I     ***  
Argentina `141 bery*** **********   *     *   **   *   
Mexico 152*****************   *  *****  * **  *   
CentralAm 153 * *** **                       
WIndies 159 asph, * * **   *  ****      **     *  
Canada 164** *********** ****   *** * *   ******   
USA 192 Borax,***************** ***    *** * **** *** *

Miscellaneous, not very coherent notes

Critical Materials are those needed to supply essential military and civilian needs during wartime, and which lack reasonable substitutes for those needs. Strategic materials are critical materials which must be imported and are availability from a small number of sources.


TCAWA (cp. Nicolaev) shows several small territories as recovered from Poland in 1634 OTL, but that may have been butterflied. Kharkov is in one of these areas, but the stated date of acquisition is 1654 (that is probably the founding date of the actual town)..

Smolensk, Gomel and Chernigov are in a region marked as recovered from Poland in 1667 OTL. Wikipedia says that Russia attempted to recover Smolensk in 1632 (“the “Smolensk War”) but was defeated; the city was finally recaptured by Russia in 1654, and ceded by Poland in 1667. Kiev, which had not previously been part of Russia, also passed into Tsarist control in that year.


The USA’s strategic minerals stockpile includes antimony, bauxite, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, columbium, diamond, fluorspar, graphite, germanium, iodine, lead, manganese, mercury, mica, iridium, platinum, quartz crystals, talc, tantalum, titanium, tungsten and zinc.


Vanadium is also shown on the HCWA state maps for Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming, but these are presumably minor deposits.


Reserve Base Chromium: Base: Kazakhstan (180K), South Africa (150K), India (44K)

Reserve Base Manganese: South Africa (4M), Ukraine (520K),


EB11 “Phosphates” has useful information on their distribution, of which some of the more interesting are the deposits in the Lahn district of Nassau, Germany and the pebbles in the gravels of the Peace River, Florida. There are also certain guano beds of the Pacific and West Indies.


You might well ask, why would anyone contemplating an expensive, dangerous expedition be content with just a casual search. You need to put yourself in a seventeenth century mindset. First of all, people went haring off into the wilds on the basis of rumors and legends. (Think of Walter Raleigh roaming the Guyanas looking for the gold of El Dorado.) That isn’t going to come to a complete halt just because there’s a library of the future to consult.

Secondly, there are a limited number of copies of the encyclopedias and a lot of people who want to consult them. While there has undoubtedly been, by 1634, publication of selected articles, it’s less certain that there has been any general printing of entire sets. For the difficulties, see Cooper, “My Name is Legion: Copying the Books of Grantville,” Grantville Gazette 12. So you might have to sign up to see a particular encyclopedia volume and then wait hours, even days, for it. That discourages doing much jumping and back and forth among volumes.

Thirdly, it takes time and expertise to use the Grantville library resources. They are in English, which is not the language of scholars nor of one of the major powers of Europe. Moreover, they are in modern English, which makes all sorts of assumptions about the reader’s educational background. That means that studying an up-time encyclopedia is more like deciphering a secret message than like ordinary reading. See Turner, “Exegesis and Interpretation of Up-timer Printed Matter”, Grantville Gazette 6. For related reasons, it will be easier to find a facsimile edition of an encyclopedia volume, than a translation.

Finally, it is human nature to be lazy. So, when the would-be “Copper King” reads that there is copper in Michigan, and realizes that he has a cousin in Quebec City who might be prompted to take a look-see, he isn’t necessarily going to feel compelled to read every encyclopedia entry on copper so he knows what his alternatives are. As Jonah Lehrer says, “We’re not so much rational creatures as rationalizing creatures.”


During the 17th century there was little or no mining of lead in France (Pulsifer, 66) even though there were mines there in Roman times.


iron proudction in Europe

40,000 tons 1500

145-180,000 tons 1750

Economy of Europe in an age of crisis, 1600-1750

By Jan De Vries 108

iron production Western Europe

1500 40,000 1 kg/capita

1600: 125,000 tonnes, 1.6 kg/capita

1700 165,000 tonnes, 2 kg/capita

1750 145-180,000 tonnes 1.5-1.9 kg/capita

1790 335,000 tonnes 2.2 kg/capita

Early Modern Capitalism

By Maarten Roy Prak, ebrary, Inc 81

Tariff Information Surveys on the Articles in Paragraph 1- of the Tariff Act …

By United States Tariff Commission 59:

pig iron production <3# per capita 1800 >100# 1913 (world)

17# 1810 to 860# 1917 (US)

British production pig iron

25,000 tons 1720

125,080 tons 1796

200,000 tons 1800

7,749,000 tons 1880

How the West Grew Rich: The Economic Transformation of the Industrial World? – Page 163

by Nathan Rosenberg 163

pig iron production per capita in 1899 (pounds)

GB 505, US 405, DE 330 BE 322, SE 244 FR 145 AU 67 RU 45 IT 1

The manufacture and properties of iron and steel

By Harry Huse Campbell 611

Hewit consumption estimate 1867

world 20 pounds/head

England 189, france 69.5 US ~100

1870 US 171 pounds

1872 US 223

1872 UK 220 not counting scrap iron

Van Nostrand’s eclectic engineering magazine 351

US 378.4 pounds GB 418 Germany 358.6 France 154 Belg 415.8 Au 72.6 Russia 57.2 Sweden 217.8 Canada 92.4 Switzerland 103.4 pounds in 1900

The International year book 409

Report of the National Conservation Commission

p 108

1880 coal 1.5 tons/p, pig iron 200#

1890 coal 2.5 tons, pig iron 320#, copper 3#, cement 70#

1900 coal 3.5 tons, pig iron 391#, copper 4.6#, cement 92#

Mineral Resources of the US, Dept Interior p. 90

1850 61.6# pig iron/p consumption

1860 63.6

1870 105.6

1880 178

1890 318.1

1900 386.8

China AD 1078 per capita output 3.1 pounds vs. Europe 1700 3.5-4.3 pounds

Growth recurring By Eric Lionel Jones citing Hartwell

In 1078 Chinese production was 125,000 tons or more per Hartwell, 75-150,000 per others.

One ton iron requires 1800 ft3 wood. England, wood replacement rate 100 ft3 /year

The British Industrial Revolution

By Joel Mokyr 235


The plow, the hammer, and the knout: an economic history of eighteenth …? – Page 113

by Arcadius Kahan, Richard Hellie – History – 1985 – 399 pages


Nickel-pyrrhotite deposits

1888-1907 Canada 60,000 tons, Norway 1848-1907 4500 tons

garnierite 1879-1907 75,000 tons

Nickel production in 1969 per EB15/1977:

1977 edition has a table showing 1969 production in metric tons

Canada – 192,000

USSR – 105,000

New Caledonia – 90,474

Cuba – 35,200

USA – 14,167

WBE2007 edition gave 2001 USGS data on nickel production (Russia, 347; Australia, 231; Canada, 198; Indonesia, 159, and New Caledonia 134 thousand tons).


Hidden Mines

(some tips on prospecting)


world production of lead in 1890, about 2% that of iron. A bit less in 1907, more like 3% in 1850. Beyschlag 207. Zinc rose faster than lead, was 1% in 1870, 1.25% in 1890. Copper about 1% iron in 1890, increasing. Tin 0.2% iron in 1890. Mercury production declined.


Scandinavia: Based on HWCA we have the following concentrations: Stavanger-Oslo (titanium, molybdenum, magnesium, iron), Trondheim-Roeros (iron, copper), Falun-Vasteras-Oerebro (iron, copper, zinc), Sulitjelma-Hemnes (copper, lead, zinc), lower Skelleftealv valley (copper, silver, gold), Norrbrotten province and nearby Lapland (iron), central Finland (chromium, vanadium), and southern Finland (copper). Estonia contributes phosphates. The titanium deposit, and the iron of Kiruna, are marked as “major”.


Roros. Total production 1644 (discovery)-1907, 80,000 tonnes metallic copper. 3455 tons produced in 1655 (Beyschlag 198).

Sulitelma, Discovered 1858, opened 1887. Produced 44,000 tons ore (4%), 1898. (Mineral Industry 206).


Tungsten: Nevada is the main USA source).


The Ottoman Empire, Safavid Persia, the Mughal Empire of India, the Ming Empire of China, and Tokugawa Japan know that Grantville exists, but as of 1634 there had only been minimal direct contact with up-timers.


source on Parentin field (France) is, for depth of discovery well, How We Get and Use Oil, p. 153 and for the search, Vajk, GEOPHYSICAL HISTORY OF PARENTIS OIL FIELD, FRANCE, Geophysics 21, 815 (1956); DOI:10.1190/1.1438279 (1956), abstract at