by Iver P. Cooper
Primary Batteries (2012)
Alkaline-Manganese dioxide Batteries (2012)
Battery Performance (2012)
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[BU] “How does Internal Resistance affect Performance?”
[BU-106] “BU-106: Advantages of Primary Batteries”
[BU-201] “BU-201: How does the Lead Acid Battery Work?”
[BU-203] “BU-203: Nickel-based Batteries”
Blomgren, The Development and Future of Lithium Ion Batteries, J. Electrochemical Soc’y, 164(1): A5019-25 (2017).
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DeMarce, 1632: Grantville Population Distribution
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ePanorama, Common DC Voltage Levels
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Cowie, “All About Batteries,” EETimes
and the previous 11 parts (links at end)
“Why Batteries Fail”
“Battery Life (and Death)”
“Battery Performance Characteristics”
“ZInc Air Batteries”
“New Battery Designs and Chemistries”
“Cell Chemistries – How Batteries Work”
“Battery Performance Characteristics”
Einerhand, Zinc Electrode Shape Change, Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven DOI:
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Evolving Energy Pty Ltd, Silver-Oxide Battery Technologies (2015).
Faegh, Understanding the Dynamics of Primary Zn-MnO2 Alkaline Battery Gassing with Operando Visualization and Pressure Cells, J. Electrochem. Soc’y, 165(11): A2528-A2535 (2018).
Field, “Homemade Batteries”
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Golberg, Zn/Cu-vegetative batteries, bioelectrical characterizations, and primary cost analyses, J. Renewable & Sustainable Energy (May 2010)
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Hare, Experiments with homemade batteries
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Hitachi, Zinc Ore Analysis (1991)
Hunt, “Juan’s Dilemma: A New Twist on the Old Lemon Battery,: Sci. Teacher, 77(7): 52-6 (2010).
Khan, Conference Paper, “Experimental Study of Earth Batteries” (2nd Intl Conf. Elec. Eng’g, Mar. 25-26, 2008, Lahore, Pakistan).
Klang, May 1, 2017 answer on Quora to “What are the physical differences between a lead-acid car battery and a lead-acid deep-cycle battery?”
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[MI] MI Battery Engineering, “Battery Shelf Life and Storage”
Monk, Hacking Electronics (2013).
Mornhinweg, Mercury Battery Replacement
Park, Perspective of Zn-Air Batteries, June 3, 2015
Pickett, Electrochemistry of Some New Alkaline Battery Electrodes (Air force Aero-Propulsion Laboratory, Feb. 1976)
Plett, Battery Boot Camp (2018)
Skogstad, Recycling Zinc from Alkaline Batteries (Bachelor’s Thesis, Civil & Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 2017)
[OGE] Off-Grid Europe, Lead-Acid Battery
Olivetti, Life Cycle Impacts of Alkaline Batteries with a Focus on End-of-Life (Feb. 2011)
Pavlov, Lead-Acid Batteries, Science and Technology: A Handbook of Lead-Acid Battery Technology and Its Influence on the Product (2017).
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[sschemical] “Density-Strength Conversion Table for Sulfuric Acid Solutions at 60° F”
Schlesinger, The Battery: How Portable Power Sparked a Technological Revolution ().
Shepherd, The Silver Oxide-Zinc Alkaline Primary Cell, Part 1 (July 1, 1949)
Sullivan, “Converting the SRT to Use Silver Oxide Cells”
Talaie, Methods and Protocols for Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials Research, Chem. Mater. 2017, 29, 90-104 (Sept. 4, 2016), DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b02726
Taylor, Mercury Battery Replacement for Antique Instruments
UPSbatterycenter.com, “Understanding Battery Shelf Life” (May 14, 2014)
Wintzer, Antimony — A Flame Fighter
Witschi Electronic Ltd., Measuring Technology and Troubleshooting for Watches (Oct. 2016).
NEWMOA, IMERC Fact Sheet: Mercury Use in Batteries
Virden, Building a Better Battery (June 9, 2011)
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Wu, Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications ().
Zamarayeva, Fabrication of a High-erformance Flexible Siver-Zinc Wire Battery, Adv. Electron. Mater. 2016: 1500296.
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